The non-biting midges, Chironomidae ( Diptera ), are dominant components of most freshwater ecosystems. Many chironomids construct tubes or cases as larvae out of various materials bound together with silk. The structures of tubes show a wide range of variation, and some are morphologically comparable to those of caddisflies. Herein a new species is described, Eukiefferiella endobryonia sp. nov., which exhibits a very unusual behavior in which it constructs tubes from aquatic mosses. This species’ fourth-instar larvae construct their cases exclusively from the leaves of Fontinalis mosses ( Hypnales : Fontinalaceae ) and exhibit a stereotyped behavior in which they remain attached to the apical shoot of the moss stem. The larvae then pupate within the case. The case of E. endobryonia sp. nov. represents one of only a few examples of chironomid tubes made exclusively out of plants. Based on the species delimitation analyses using the partial COI sequences, together with some morphological and behavioral characteristics, this species is hypothesized to be a member of devonica group, and especially may have a close affinity to E. dittmari (Lehman). A provisional typology for the diversity of chironomid tube structures is provided, with a summary of different tube structures, which can be used for future research.