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      A novel leaf-rolling chironomid, Eukiefferiella endobryonia sp. nov. (Diptera, Chironomidae, Orthocladiinae), highlights the diversity of underwater chironomid tube structures

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      ZooKeys

      Pensoft Publishers

      bryophytivore, freshwater, Orthocladiinae , tubicolous, Eukiefferiella

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          The non-biting midges, Chironomidae ( Diptera ), are dominant components of most freshwater ecosystems. Many chironomids construct tubes or cases as larvae out of various materials bound together with silk. The structures of tubes show a wide range of variation, and some are morphologically comparable to those of caddisflies. Herein a new species is described, Eukiefferiella endobryonia sp. nov., which exhibits a very unusual behavior in which it constructs tubes from aquatic mosses. This species’ fourth-instar larvae construct their cases exclusively from the leaves of Fontinalis mosses ( Hypnales : Fontinalaceae ) and exhibit a stereotyped behavior in which they remain attached to the apical shoot of the moss stem. The larvae then pupate within the case. The case of E. endobryonia sp. nov. represents one of only a few examples of chironomid tubes made exclusively out of plants. Based on the species delimitation analyses using the partial COI sequences, together with some morphological and behavioral characteristics, this species is hypothesized to be a member of devonica group, and especially may have a close affinity to E. dittmari (Lehman). A provisional typology for the diversity of chironomid tube structures is provided, with a summary of different tube structures, which can be used for future research.

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          Most cited references 156

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          Rebuilding community ecology from functional traits.

          There is considerable debate about whether community ecology will ever produce general principles. We suggest here that this can be achieved but that community ecology has lost its way by focusing on pairwise species interactions independent of the environment. We assert that community ecology should return to an emphasis on four themes that are tied together by a two-step process: how the fundamental niche is governed by functional traits within the context of abiotic environmental gradients; and how the interaction between traits and fundamental niches maps onto the realized niche in the context of a biotic interaction milieu. We suggest this approach can create a more quantitative and predictive science that can more readily address issues of global change.
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            Structure and Function of Stream Ecosystems

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              Biology of Freshwater Chironomidae

               L Pinder (1986)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                22 January 2020
                : 906
                : 73-111
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577, Japan Ehime University Ehime Japan
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Yume Imada ( imayume.ac@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: F. L. da Silva

                Article
                47834
                10.3897/zookeys.906.47834
                6989570
                Yume Imada

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Chironomidae
                Marine & Freshwater ecology
                Species Inventories
                Eastern USA and Eastern Canada

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