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      The pretreatment albumin to globulin ratio predicts survival in patients with natural killer/T-cell lymphoma

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          Background. The pretreatment albumin to globulin ratio (AGR) has been reported to be a predictor of survival in several types of cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of AGR in patients with natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL).

          Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the available serum biochemistry results for 331 NKTCL patients before treatment. AGR was calculated as albumin/(total protein—albumin), and a cut-off value of 1.3 was used to define AGR as low or high. Survival analysis was used to assess the prognostic value of AGR.

          Results. A low AGR (<1.3) was associated with significantly more adverse clinical features, including old age, poor performance status, advanced stage, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, B symptoms, and high International Prognostic Index (IPI) and natural killer/T-cell lymphoma prognostic index (NKPI) scores. Patients with a low AGR had a significantly lower 5-year overall survival (44.5 vs. 65.2%, P < 0.001) and progression-free survival (33.1 vs. 57.4%, P < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, a low AGR remained an independent predictor of poorer survival. Additionally, AGR distinguished patients with different outcomes in the IPI low-risk group and in the NKPI high-risk group.

          Discussion. Pretreatment AGR may serve as a simple and effective predictor of prognosis in patients with NKTCL.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Clinical differences between nasal and extranasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma: a study of 136 cases from the International Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Project.

           Wing Au,  ,  Shigeo Nakamura (2009)
          Among 1153 new adult cases of peripheral/T-cell lymphoma from 1990-2002 at 22 centers in 13 countries, 136 cases (11.8%) of extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma were identified (nasal 68%, extranasal 26%, aggressive/unclassifiable 6%). The disease frequency was higher in Asian than in Western countries and in Continental Asia than in Japan. There were no differences in age, sex, ethnicity, or immunophenotypic profile between the nasal and extranasal cases, but the latter had more adverse clinical features. The median overall survival (OS) was better in nasal compared with the extranasal cases in early- (2.96 vs 0.36 years, P < .001) and late-stage disease (0.8 vs 0.28 years, P = .031). The addition of radiotherapy for early-stage nasal cases yielded survival benefit (P = .045). Among nasal cases, both the International Prognostic Index (P = .006) and Korean NK/T-cell Prognostic Index (P < .001) were prognostic. In addition, Ki67 proliferation greater than 50%, transformed tumor cells greater than 40%, elevated C-reactive protein level (CRP), anemia (< 11 g/dL) and thrombocytopenia (< 150 x 10(9)/L) predicts poorer OS for nasal disease. No histologic or clinical feature was predictive in extranasal disease. We conclude that the clinical features and treatment response of extranasal NK/T-cell lymphoma are different from of those of nasal lymphoma. However, the underlying features responsible for these differences remain to be defined.
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            Extranodal natural killer T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type: a prognostic model from a retrospective multicenter study.

            Patients with natural killer T (NK/T) -cell lymphomas have poor survival outcome, and for this condition there is no optimal therapy. The purpose of this study was to design a prognostic model specifically for extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, which can identify high-risk patients who need more aggressive therapy. This multicenter retrospective study was comprised of 262 patients who were diagnosed with NK/T-cell lymphoma. After a median follow-up duration of 51.2 months, 5-year overall survival rate in 262 patients was 49.5%. Prognostic factors for survival were "B" symptoms (P = .0003; relative risk, 2.202; 95% CI, 1.446 to 3.353), stage (P = .0006; relative risk, 2.366; 95% CI, 1.462 to 3.828), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level (P = .0005; relative risk, 2.278; 95% CI, 1.442 to 3.598), and regional lymph nodes (P = .0044; relative risk, 1.546; 95% CI, 1.009 to 2.367). Of 262 patients, 219 had complete information on four parameters. We identified four different risk groups: group 1, no adverse factor; group 2, one factor; group 3, two factors; and group 4, three or four factors. The new model showed a superior prognostic discrimination as compared with the International Prognostic Index (IPI). Notably, the distribution of patients was balanced when a new model was adopted (group 1, 27%; group 2, 31%; group 3, 20%; group 4, 22%), whereas 81% of patients were categorized as low or low-intermediate risks using IPI. The newly proposed model for extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma demonstrated a more balanced distribution of patients into four groups with better prognostic discrimination as compared with the IPI.
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              SMILE for natural killer/T-cell lymphoma: analysis of safety and efficacy from the Asia Lymphoma Study Group.

              Natural killer/T-cell lymphoma is rare and aggressive, with poor outcome. Optimal treatment remains unclear. A novel regimen dexamethasone, methotrexate, ifosfamide, l-asparaginase, and etoposide (SMILE) showed promise in phase 1/2 studies with restrictive recruitment criteria. To define the general applicability of SMILE, 43 newly diagnosed and 44 relapsed/refractory patients (nasal, N = 60, nonnasal, N = 21; disseminated, N = 6; male, N = 59; female, N = 28) at a median age of 51 years (23-83 years) were treated. Poor-risk factors included stage III/IV disease (56%), international prognostic index of 3 to 5 (43%), and Korean prognostic scores of 3 to 4 (41%). A median of 3 (0-6; total = 315) courses of SMILE were administered. Significant toxicities included grade 3/4 neutropenia (N = 57; 5 sepsis-related deaths); grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia (N = 36); and nephrotoxicity (N = 15; 1 acute renal failure and death). Interim analysis after 2 to 3 cycles showed complete remission rate of 56%, partial remission rate of 22%, giving an overall response rate of 78%. On treatment completion, the overall-response rate became 81% (complete remission = 66%, partial remission = 15%). Response rates were similar for newly diagnosed or relapsed/refractory patients. At a median follow-up of 31 months (1-84 months), the 5-year overall survival was 50% and 4-year disease-free-survival was 64%. Multivariate analysis showed that international prognostic index was the most significant factor impacting on outcome and survivals.

                Author and article information

                PeerJ Inc. (San Francisco, USA )
                3 March 2016
                : 4
                [1 ]Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center , Guangzhou, Guangdong, PR China
                [2 ]State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China , Guangzhou, Guangdong, PR China
                [3 ]Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine , Guangzhou, Guangdong, PR China
                [4 ]Department of Hematologic Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center , Guangzhou, Guangdong, PR China
                [5 ]Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center , Guangzhou, Guangdong, PR China
                [6 ]Department of Pathology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center , Guangzhou, Guangdong, PR China
                ©2016 Bi et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.

                Funded by: National-Eleventh Five Technology Major Project
                Award ID: 2008ZX09312-002
                Award ID: 2012ZX09301
                This study was funded by the National-Eleventh Five Technology Major Project (No. 2008ZX09312-002 and 2012ZX09301 to Wen-qi Jiang). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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