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      Cell Death Mechanisms in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Induced by Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Matrix Protein


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          Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is under development as an oncolytic virus due to its preferential replication in cancer cells and oncolytic activity, however the viral components responsible have not yet been determined. In this study the effects of VSV wild-type (wt) and M51R-mutant matrix proteins (M51R-mMP) on apoptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis, and autophagy pathways, in an esophagus cancer cell line (KYSE-30) were investigated.


          The KYSE-30 cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1 plasmids encoding wt or M51R-mMP, and apoptosis, pyroptosis, necroptosis, and autophagy were evaluated 48 and 72 hours after transfection.


          KYSE-30 cells transfected with VSV wt and M51R-mMPs significantly reduced cell viability to < 50% at 72 hours post-transfection. M51R-MP significantly increased the concentration of caspase-8 and caspase-9 at 48 and 72 hours post-transfection, respectively ( p < 0.05). In contrast, no significant changes were detected following transfection with the VSV wt plasmid. Moreover, VSV wt and M51R-mMP transfected cells did not change the expression of caspase-3. VSV wt and M51R-mMPs did not mMP change caspase-1 expression (a marker of pyroptosis) at 48 and 72 hours post-transfection. However, M51R-mMP and VSV wt transfected cells significantly increased RIP-1 (a marker of necroptosis) expression at 72 hours post-infection ( p < 0.05). Beclin-1, a biomarker of autophagy, was also induced by transfection with VSV wt or M51R-mMPs at 48 hours post-transfection.


          The results in this study indicated that VSV exerts oncolytic activity in KYSE-30 tumor cells through different cell death pathways, suggesting that M51R-mMP may potentially be used to enhance oncolysis.

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          Most cited references31

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          Disruption of the beclin 1/Bcl-2 autophagy regulatory complex promotes longevity in mice

          Autophagy increases lifespan of model organisms; however, its role in promoting mammalian longevity is less well-established 1,2 . Here, we report lifespan and healthspan extension in a mouse model with increased basal autophagy. To determine the effects of constitutively increased autophagy on mammalian health, we generated targeted mutant mice with a F121A (Becn1 F121A/F121A) mutation in beclin 1 that decreases its interaction with the negative regulator, Bcl-2. We demonstrate that beclin 1/Bcl-2 interaction is disrupted in multiple tissues in Becn1 F121A/F121A knock-in (KI) mice in association with higher levels of basal autophagic flux. Compared to wild-type (WT) littermates, the lifespan of both male and female KI mice is significantly increased. The healthspan of the KI mice also improves as aging-related phenotypes are diminished, including age-related renal and cardiac pathological changes and spontaneous tumorigenesis. Moreover, mice deficient in the anti-aging protein, Klotho 3 , have increased beclin 1/Bcl-2 interaction, decreased autophagy, premature lethality and infertility which are rescued by the beclin 1 F121A mutation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that disruption of the beclin 1/Bcl-2 complex is an effective mechanism to increase autophagy, prevent premature aging, improve healthspan and promote longevity in mammals.
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            Autophagy-dependent viral recognition by plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

            Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) detect viruses in the acidified endosomes by means of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Yet, pDC responses to certain single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses occur only after live viral infection. We present evidence here that the recognition of such viruses by TLR7 requires transport of cytosolic viral replication intermediates into the lysosome by the process of autophagy. In addition, autophagy was found to be required for the production of interferon-alpha by pDCs. These results support a key role for autophagy in mediating ssRNA virus detection and interferon-alpha secretion by pDCs and suggest that cytosolic replication intermediates of viruses serve as pathogen signatures recognized by TLR7.
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              Recognition of RNA virus by RIG-I results in activation of CARD9 and inflammasome signaling for interleukin 1 beta production.

              Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) is a potent proinflammatory factor during viral infection. Its production is tightly controlled by transcription of Il1b dependent on the transcription factor NF-kappaB and subsequent processing of pro-IL-1 beta by an inflammasome. However, the sensors and mechanisms that facilitate RNA virus-induced production of IL-1 beta are not well defined. Here we report a dual role for the RNA helicase RIG-I in RNA virus-induced proinflammatory responses. Whereas RIG-I-mediated activation of NF-kappaB required the signaling adaptor MAVS and a complex of the adaptors CARD9 and Bcl-10, RIG-I also bound to the adaptor ASC to trigger caspase-1-dependent inflammasome activation by a mechanism independent of MAVS, CARD9 and the Nod-like receptor protein NLRP3. Our results identify the CARD9-Bcl-10 module as an essential component of the RIG-I-dependent proinflammatory response and establish RIG-I as a sensor able to activate the inflammasome in response to certain RNA viruses.

                Author and article information

                Osong Public Health Res Perspect
                Osong Public Health Res Perspect
                Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
                Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
                August 2019
                : 10
                : 4
                : 246-252
                [a ]Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
                [b ]Infectious Diseases Research Centre, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Abdolvahab Moradi, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran, E-mail: abmoradi@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright ©2019, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                : 24 April 2019
                : 10 July 2019
                : 28 July 2019
                Original Article

                apoptosis,autophagy,oncolytic viruses,plasmids,pyroptosis
                apoptosis, autophagy, oncolytic viruses, plasmids, pyroptosis


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