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      Larval trematode infections in Lymnaea glabra populations living in the Brenne Regional Natural Park, central France Translated title: Infections par des larves de Trématodes chez des populations de Lymnaea glabra vivant dans le Parc Naturel Régional de la Brenne, centre de la France

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          Lymnaea glabra is known to be a natural intermediate host of two flukes, Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica, in central France. But it can also sustain larval development of other digeneans. Adult snails were thus collected from 206 habitats in 2014 and 2015 to identify parasite species and determine the prevalence of each digenean infection in relation to the five types of snail habitats. Seven digenean species were noted in 321 infected snails (out of 17,647 L. glabra). Snails with F. hepatica or C. daubneyi were found in 14.5% and 12.6% of habitats, respectively. Percentages were lower for snails with Opisthoglyphe ranae (5.8%), Haplometra cylindracea (5.3%) and were less than 5% for those infected with Echinostoma revolutum, Notocotylus sp. or Plagiorchis sp. Prevalence noted for each parasite species varied with the type of habitat. The number of species in L. glabra was lower than that found in G. truncatula from the same region (7 instead of 10). The distribution and prevalence of each digenean species were thus dependent on the type and location of each snail habitat.

          Translated abstract

          Lymnaea glabra est connu comme un hôte intermédiaire naturel de deux douves, Calicophoron daubneyi et Fasciola hepatica, dans le centre de la France. Mais cette limnée peut aussi soutenir le développement larvaire d’autres Digènes. Des L. glabra adultes ont été récoltés pour cela dans 206 habitats en 2014 et 2015 pour identifier les espèces de parasites et déterminer la prévalence de chaque Digène par rapport aux cinq types d’habitats à mollusques. Sept espèces de Digènes ont été trouvées chez 321 mollusques parasités (sur un total de 17 647 L. glabra). Les limnées avec F. hepatica ou C. daubneyi ont été récoltées, respectivement, dans 14.5 % et 12.6 % des habitats. Les pourcentages sont plus faibles pour les limnées avec Opisthoglyphe ranae (5.8 %), Haplometra cylindracea (5.3 %) et sont inférieurs à 5 % pour les mollusques infestés par Echinostoma revolutum, Notocotylus sp. ou Plagiorchis sp. La prévalence notée pour chaque espèce de parasite varie avec le type d’habitat. Le nombre d’espèces chez L. glabra est plus faible que celui trouvé chez les Galba truncatula de la même région (7 au lieu de 10). La distribution et la prévalence de chaque espèce de Digène sont donc dépendantes du type et de la localisation de chaque habitat à limnées.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Fascioliasis and other plant-borne trematode zoonoses.

          Fascioliasis and other food-borne trematodiases are included in the list of important helminthiases with a great impact on human development. Six plant-borne trematode species have been found to affect humans: Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica and Fasciolopsis buski (Fasciolidae), Gastrodiscoides hominis (Gastrodiscidae), Watsonius watsoni and Fischoederius elongatus (Paramphistomidae). Whereas F. hepatica and F. gigantica are hepatic, the other four species are intestinal parasites. The fasciolids and the gastrodiscid cause important zoonoses distributed throughout many countries, while W. watsoni and F. elongatus have been only accidentally detected in humans. Present climate and global changes appear to increasingly affect snail-borne helminthiases, which are strongly dependent on environmental factors. Fascioliasis is a good example of an emerging/re-emerging parasitic disease in many countries as a consequence of many phenomena related to environmental changes as well as man-made modifications. The ability of F. hepatica to spread is related to its capacity to colonise and adapt to new hosts and environments, even at the extreme inhospitality of very high altitude. Moreover, the spread of F. hepatica from its original European range to other continents is related to the geographic expansion of its original European lymnaeid intermediate host species Galba truncatula, the American species Pseudosuccinea columella, and its adaptation to other lymnaeid species authochthonous in the newly colonised areas. Although fasciolopsiasis and gastrodiscoidiasis can be controlled along with other food-borne parasitoses, fasciolopsiasis still remains a public health problem in many endemic areas despite sustained WHO control programmes. Fasciolopsiasis has become a re-emerging infection in recent years and gastrodiscoidiasis, initially supposed to be restricted to Asian countries, is now being reported in African countries.
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            An introductory guide to the identification of cercariae from African freshwater snails with special reference to cercariae of trematode species of medical and veterinary importance.

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              Larval trematodes (Digenea) of planorbid snails (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in Central Europe: a survey of species and key to their identification.

              A survey of the larval stages (cercariae and metacercariae) of trematodes (Digenea) found in planorbid snails in Central Europe (Austria, Czech Republic, south-east Germany, Hungary, Poland and the Slovak Republic) is presented based on a study of 7,628 snails of 12 species examined between 1998-2006. A total of 34 trematode larval stages, comprising cercariae of 28 species and metacercariae of seven species (one species occurred both as cercaria and metacercaria) of nine families were found in 898 (11.5%) snails of eight species. The dominant cercariae were those belonging to the Rubenstrema exasperatum (Rudolphi, 1819)/Neoglyphe locellus (Kossack, 1910) species complex, Tylodelphys excavata (Rudolphi, 1803) and Echinostoma spiniferum (La Valette, 1855) sensu Nasincová (1992), all from Planorbarius corneus (Linnaeus). Almost the same spectrum of cercariae of the families Echinostomatidae, Plagiorchiidae and Omphalometridae was found in the present study as in previous reports; however, a considerably lower spectrum of cercariae of the families Diplostomidae and Strigeidae was recorded. The most frequent metacercariae were those of Echinoparyphium aconiatum Dietz, 1909, Neoglyphe locellus and Moliniella anceps (Molin, 1859), all occurring mainly in P. corneus. The most heavily infected snail species was P. corneus, followed by Planorbis planorbis (Linnaeus) and Segmentina nitida (Müller). The widest spectrum of trematode species was found in P. planorbis and P. corneus. Forty-two cercariae identified to the species level belonging to 15 families, plus an additional 43 taxa recorded under generic or provisional names, were reported from 11 species of planorbids in previous studies carried out in Central Europe. However, the actual number of trematode species occurring in the planorbid snails is probably much lower, because many, if not most, larval stages reported under provisional names or unidentified to the species level may be conspecific with identified adult forms. A key to the cercariae and metacercariae recorded from planorbids in Central Europe, together with illustrations of those species encountered most frequently in the field, is provided to facilitate identification.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                21 December 2015
                : 22
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2015/01 )
                [1 ] INSERM 1094, Faculties of Medicine and Pharmacy 87025 Limoges France
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: e-mail: gilles.dreyfuss@ 123456unilim.fr
                parasite150066 10.1051/parasite/2015038
                © D. Rondelaud et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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