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      Deciphering amphibian diversity through DNA barcoding: chances and challenges.

      Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

      Amphibians, genetics, Animals, Automatic Data Processing, methods, Base Sequence, Biodiversity, DNA, DNA Primers, Electron Transport Complex IV, Evolution, Molecular, Geography, Molecular Diagnostic Techniques, Molecular Sequence Data, RNA, Ribosomal, 16S, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Species Specificity

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          Abstract

          Amphibians globally are in decline, yet there is still a tremendous amount of unrecognized diversity, calling for an acceleration of taxonomic exploration. This process will be greatly facilitated by a DNA barcoding system; however, the mitochondrial population structure of many amphibian species presents numerous challenges to such a standardized, single locus, approach. Here we analyse intra- and interspecific patterns of mitochondrial variation in two distantly related groups of amphibians, mantellid frogs and salamanders, to determine the promise of DNA barcoding with cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1) sequences in this taxon. High intraspecific cox1 divergences of 7-14% were observed (18% in one case) within the whole set of amphibian sequences analysed. These high values are not caused by particularly high substitution rates of this gene but by generally deep mitochondrial divergences within and among amphibian species. Despite these high divergences, cox1 sequences were able to correctly identify species including disparate geographic variants. The main problems with cox1 barcoding of amphibians are (i) the high variability of priming sites that hinder the application of universal primers to all species and (ii) the observed distinct overlap of intraspecific and interspecific divergence values, which implies difficulties in the definition of threshold values to identify candidate species. Common discordances between geographical signatures of mitochondrial and nuclear markers in amphibians indicate that a single-locus approach can be problematic when high accuracy of DNA barcoding is required. We suggest that a number of mitochondrial and nuclear genes may be used as DNA barcoding markers to complement cox1.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          16221604
          1609216
          10.1098/rstb.2005.1717

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