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      Dynamics of parenting styles of adolescent students from the perspective of intergenerational conflict


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          Objective To explore dynamics of parenting styles of adolescents from 1999 to 2019 from the perspective of intergenerational conllict, to provide support for family education and adolescent healthy development.

          Methods Using a multistage stratified cluster random sampling method, the unified questionnaire was administered to 2 590 students in the same sampling junior and senior high schools in 1999, 2009, and 2019 using the Egna Minnen av Bamdoms Uppfostran-own memories of parental rearing practices in childhood (EMBU).

          Results Overall there were differences in the nine factors of parenting styles across generations ( F = 12.07–72.52, P<0.01), with decreasing ratings of warmth and understanding of father and mother (F1, M1), over-interference of father (F3) over generations (F1: 46.72±9.41, 45.87±11.33, 43.61±11.27; M1: 51.56±9.38, 51.03±11.59, 46.23±12.27; F3: 19.03±4.00, 18.29±4.32, 17.95±4.51), and all other parenting styles rated higher in 2019 than in 2009 and 1999 (except for the over-protection and over-interference of mother, and punishment, firm control of mother). Parenting styles across generations (except for the rejection and denial of father among girls) showed gender difference. The overall gender trend coincided with the total population trend. Parenting styles across generations varied significantly among middle and high school students ( F = 3.92–47.27, P<0.05), changes in F1 and F3 factors coincided with the overall decreasing trend. Factor analysis showed that parenting styles could be classified into two dimensions, with varied factor loading across generation.

          Conclusion Intergenerational decreases in parental emotional warmth and paternal interfering are observed in a sex- and grade-specific manner. Based on the diversity of needs and population differentiation, optimal intervention for comprehensive health development of adolescents are in great need to keep pace with the times and promoting the high-quality development of adolescents.


          【摘要】 目的 从代际差异视角探讨1999一2019年青春期学生的父母教养方式变化特点和趋势, 为改善家庭教育支持环境、促进青少年髙质量发展助力。 方法 运用多阶段分层整群随机抽样方法, 采用父母教养方式评价量表(EMBU)于1999、2009和2019年在同一地区且同一初、髙中对2 590名学生进行问卷调査。 结果 父母教养方式的9个因子在不同年份间差异均有统计学意义( F =12.07~72.52, P值均<0.01), 其中父母情感温暖理解(F1、M1)、父亲过分干涉(F3)随年份变化均值递减(F1: 46.72±9.41, 45.87±11.33, 43.61±11.27; M1: 51.56±9.38, 51.03±11.59, 46.23±12.27; F3: 19.03±4.00, 18.29±4.32, 17.95±4.51), 其他教养方式得分均为2019年髙于2009和1999年(除母亲过分干涉、保护和母亲惩罚、严厉外)。性别上, 父母家庭教养方式(除女生父亲拒绝、否认因子外)存在年份差异, 性别总体变化趋势与总人群趋势相同。在初髙中学生中, 父母教养方式在年份间差异均有统计学意义( F = 3.92~47.27, P值均<0.05), 无论初中还是髙中, F1和F3因子变化趋势与总体的递减趋势相同。因素分析结果显示, 3个年份均将父母教养方式分成2个维度, 但不同年份的因子载荷不同。 结论 不同年代青春期学生对父母情感温暖理解的体验及父亲过分干涉行为在减少, 且存在明显的性别与学段差异。应注重需求的多样化与群体差异化, 提出相应的干预方案, 切实促进青少年髙质量发展。

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          Author and article information

          Chinese Journal of School Health
          Chinese Journal of School Health (China )
          01 August 2022
          01 September 2022
          : 43
          : 8
          : 1189-1192
          [1] 1Harbin Medical University School of Health Management, Department of Health Education, Harbin (150081), China
          Author notes
          *Corresponding author: WANG Limin, E-mail: wanglimin2008@ 123456163.com
          © 2022 Chinese Journal of School Health

          This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

          Self URI (journal-page): http://www.cjsh.org.cn
          Journal Article

          Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pediatrics,Nutrition & Dietetics,Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry,Public health
          Analysis of variance,Intergenerational relations,Education,Students,Puberty


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