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      Mechanistic Considerations on Contact-Active Antimicrobial Surfaces with Controlled Functional Group Densities

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      Macromolecular Bioscience

      Wiley

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          Abstract

          A series of N-alkyl-N,N-dimethyldeoxyammonium celluloses is synthesized by converting tosyl celluloses with DBA and DDA, respectively. Surface coatings with these water-insoluble derivatives contain well-defined densities of quaternary ammonium functions and nonactive hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups. It is shown that the antimicrobial activity of such surfaces against S. aureus requires a delicate balance between DDA, BDA, and hydrophobic groups. A mechanism is proposed that involves the selective adhesion of anionic phospholipids from the bacterial cell membrane. This so-called phospholipid sponge effect is supported by the fact that all coatings could be deactivated by treatment with SDS or negatively charged phospholipids, but not with neutral phospholipids. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Designing surfaces that kill bacteria on contact.

          Poly(4-vinyl-N-alkylpyridinium bromide) was covalently attached to glass slides to create a surface that kills airborne bacteria on contact. The antibacterial properties were assessed by spraying aqueous suspensions of bacterial cells on the surface, followed by air drying and counting the number of cells remaining viable (i.e., capable of growing colonies). Amino glass slides were acylated with acryloyl chloride, copolymerized with 4-vinylpyridine, and N-alkylated with different alkyl bromides (from propyl to hexadecyl). The resultant surfaces, depending on the alkyl group, were able to kill up to 94 +/- 4% of Staphylococcus aureus cells sprayed on them. A surface alternatively created by attaching poly(4-vinylpyridine) to a glass slide and alkylating it with hexyl bromide killed 94 +/- 3% of the deposited S. aureus cells. On surfaces modified with N-hexylated poly(4-vinylpyridine), the numbers of viable cells of another Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, as well as of the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, dropped more than 100-fold compared with the original amino glass. In contrast, the number of viable bacterial cells did not decline significantly after spraying on such common materials as ceramics, plastics, metals, and wood.
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            Permanent, non-leaching antibacterial surface--2: how high density cationic surfaces kill bacterial cells.

            Rational controlled synthesis of poly(quaternary ammonium) compounds has been used to prepare antimicrobial polymer brushes on inorganic surfaces. The systematic variation of several structural parameters of the polymeric brushes allowed us to elicit the minimum surface requirements and a probable mechanism of action for Escherichia coli cell kill. Polymeric brushes were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), a method that allows the molecular weight of the polymer chains to be precisely controlled as they grow from the target surface. The tertiary amino groups of the polyDMAEMA were then quaternized with alkyl bromides to provide a surface with antimicrobial activity. Dry layer thickness of the polymer brushes was controlled by polymerization time and/or initiator density on the surface. This tunability of surface structure allows the antimicrobial polymer brushes to be tailored rationally. A combinatorial screening tool was developed to elucidate the role of chain length and chain density on cell kill in a single experiment. The results indicate that surface charge density, is a critical element in designing a surface for maximum kill efficiency. The most biocidal surfaces had charge densities of greater than 1-5 x 10(15) accessible quaternary amine units/cm(2). The relevance of this finding to the mechanism of action is discussed.
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              Antimicrobial surfaces and their potential in reducing the role of the inanimate environment in the incidence of hospital-acquired infections

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Macromolecular Bioscience
                Macromol. Biosci.
                Wiley
                16165187
                April 08 2011
                April 08 2011
                January 12 2011
                : 11
                : 4
                : 526-534
                Article
                10.1002/mabi.201000398
                21229579
                © 2011
                Product

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