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      The Clinical Use of Human Culture–Expanded Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplanted on Platelet-Rich Fibrin Glue in the Treatment of Articular Cartilage Defects : A Pilot Study and Preliminary Results

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          Abstract

          Objective:

          To test the hypothesis that platelet-rich fibrin glue (PR-FG) can be used clinically as a scaffold to deliver autologous culture-expanded bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) for cartilage repair and to report clinical results 1 y after implantation of MSCs PR-FG.

          Patients and Methods:

          Autologous BM-MSCs were culture expanded, placed on PR-FG intraoperatively, and then transplanted into 5 full-thickness cartilage defects of femoral condyles of 5 patients and covered with an autologous periosteal flap. Patients were evaluated clinically at 6 and 12 mo by the Lysholm and Revised Hospital for Special Surgery Knee (RHSSK) scores and radiographically by x-rays and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the same time points. Repair tissue in 2 patients was rated arthroscopically after 12 mo using the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) Arthroscopic Score.

          Study Design:

          Case series; level of evidence 4.

          Results:

          All patients’ symptoms improved over the follow-up period of 12 mo. Average Lysholm and RHSSK scores for all patients showed statistically significant improvement at 6 and 12 mo postoperatively ( P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the 6 and 12 mo postoperative clinical scores ( P = 0.18). ICRS arthroscopic scores were 8/12 and 11/12 (nearly normal) for the 2 patients who consented to arthroscopy. MRI of 3 patients at 12 mo postoperatively revealed complete defect fill and complete surface congruity with native cartilage, whereas that of 2 patients showed incomplete congruity.

          Conclusion:

          Autologous BM-MSC transplantation on PR-FG as a cell scaffold may be an effective approach to promote the repair of articular cartilage defects of the knee in human patients.

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          Most cited references45

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          Platelet-rich plasma: evidence to support its use.

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            Why are MSCs therapeutic? New data: new insight.

            A Caplan (2009)
            Adult marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to differentiate into bone, cartilage, muscle, marrow stroma, tendon-ligament, fat and other connective tissues. The questions can be asked, what do MSCs do naturally and where is the MSC niche? New insight and clinical experience suggest that MSCs are naturally found as perivascular cells, summarily referred to as pericytes, which are released at sites of injury, where they secrete large quantities of bioactive factors that are both immunomodulatory and trophic. The trophic activity inhibits ischaemia-caused apoptosis and scarring while stimulating angiogenesis and the mitosis of tissue intrinsic progenitor cells. The immunomodulation inhibits lymphocyte surveillance of the injured tissue, thus preventing autoimmunity, and allows allogeneic MSCs to be used in a variety of clinical situations. Thus, a new, enlightened era of experimentation and clinical trials has been initiated with xenogenic and allogeneic MSCs.
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              Human autologous culture expanded bone marrow mesenchymal cell transplantation for repair of cartilage defects in osteoarthritic knees.

              There is no widely accepted method to repair articular cartilage defects. Bone marrow mesenchymal cells have the potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, fat and muscle. Bone marrow mesenchymal cell transplantation is easy to use clinically because cells can be easily obtained and can be multiplied without losing their capacity of differentiation. The objective of this study was to apply these cell transplantations to repair human articular cartilage defects in osteoarthritic knee joints. Twenty-four knees of 24 patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) who underwent a high tibial osteotomy comprised the study group. Adherent cells in bone marrow aspirates were culture expanded, embedded in collagen gel, transplanted into the articular cartilage defect in the medial femoral condyle and covered with autologous periosteum at the time of 12 high tibial osteotomies. The other 12 subjects served as cell-free controls. In the cell-transplanted group, as early as 6.3 weeks after transplantation the defects were covered with white to pink soft tissue, in which metachromasia was partially observed. Forty-two weeks after transplantation, the defects were covered with white soft tissue, in which metachromasia was observed in almost all areas of the sampled tissue and hyaline cartilage-like tissue was partially observed. Although the clinical improvement was not significantly different, the arthroscopic and histological grading score was better in the cell-transplanted group than in the cell-free control group. This procedure highlights the availability of autologous culture expanded bone marrow mesenchymal cell transplantation for the repair of articular cartilage defects in humans. Copyright 2002 OsteoArthritis Research Society International.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cartilage
                Cartilage
                CAR
                spcar
                Cartilage
                SAGE Publications (Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA )
                1947-6035
                1947-6043
                October 2010
                October 2010
                : 1
                : 4
                : 253-261
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cairo University School of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt
                [2 ]Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
                [3 ]Department of Medical Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Tissue Engineering Unit, Cairo University School of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt
                Author notes
                [*]Amgad M. Haleem, MD, Cairo University Hospital, Saray El Manial Street, El Manial, Cairo 12411, Egypt Email: amgad_haleem@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                10.1177_1947603510366027
                10.1177/1947603510366027
                3002255
                21170288
                7b207fd1-af78-4584-b73e-14798e23fa2e
                © The Author(s) 2010
                Categories
                Brief Report

                mesenchymal stem cells,platelet-rich plasma,fibrin glue,cartilage,repair

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