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      Approaches and Methods to Measure Oxidative Stress in Clinical Samples: Research Applications in the Cancer Field

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      Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
      Hindawi

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          Abstract

          Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common by-products of normal aerobic cellular metabolism and play important physiological roles in intracellular cell signaling and homeostasis. The human body is equipped with antioxidant systems to regulate the levels of these free radicals and maintain proper physiological function. However, a condition known as oxidative stress (OS) occurs, when ROS overwhelm the body's ability to readily detoxify them. Excessive amounts of free radicals generated under OS conditions cause oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, severely compromising cell health and contributing to disease development, including cancer. Biomarkers of OS can therefore be exploited as important tools in the assessment of disease status in humans. In the present review, we discuss different approaches used for the evaluation of OS in clinical samples. The described methods are limited in their ability to reflect on OS only partially, revealing the need of more integrative approaches examining both pro- and antioxidant reactions with higher sensitivity to physiological/pathological alternations. We also provide an overview of recent findings of OS in patients with different types of cancer. Identification of OS biomarkers in clinical samples of cancer patients and defining their roles in carcinogenesis hold great promise in promoting the development of targeted therapeutic approaches and diagnostic strategies assessing disease status. However, considerable data variability across laboratories makes it difficult to draw general conclusions on the significance of these OS biomarkers. To our knowledge, no adequate comparison has yet been performed between different biomarkers and the methodologies used to measure them, making it difficult to conduct a meta-analysis of findings from different groups. A critical evaluation and adaptation of proposed methodologies available in the literature should therefore be undertaken, to enable the investigators to choose the most suitable procedure for each chosen biomarker.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                OMCL
                Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
                Hindawi
                1942-0900
                1942-0994
                2019
                12 March 2019
                : 2019
                : 1279250
                Affiliations
                Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, 11021 Campus Street, 101 Alumni Hall, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Grzegorz Bartosz

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7559-6713
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-0998-2157
                Article
                10.1155/2019/1279250
                6434272
                30992736
                7b249c98-9b33-4b19-ae8e-1a075244edad
                Copyright © 2019 Meghri Katerji et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 2 November 2018
                : 31 January 2019
                Categories
                Review Article

                Molecular medicine
                Molecular medicine

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