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      The Microbiome of Potentially Malignant Oral Leukoplakia Exhibits Enrichment for Fusobacterium, Leptotrichia, Campylobacter, and Rothia Species


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          Oral leukoplakia presents as a white patch on the oral mucosa and is recognized as having significant malignant potential. Although colonization of these patches with Candida albicans is common, little is known about the bacterial microbiota of these patches. In the current study we analyzed the microbiome of oral leukoplakia in 36 patients compared to healthy mucosal tissue from the same patients and healthy control subjects to determine if specific microbial enrichments could be identified early in the malignant process that could play a role in the progression of the disease. This was carried out by sequence analysis of the V1–V2 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina MiSeq. Oral leukoplakia exhibited increased abundance of Fusobacteria and reduced levels of Firmicutes (Metastats P < 0.01). Candida colonization was also more prevalent in leukoplakia patients relative to healthy controls ( P = 0.025). Bacterial colonization patterns on oral leukoplakia were highly variable and five distinct bacterial clusters were discerned. These clusters exhibited co-occurrence of Fusobacterium, Leptotrichia, and Campylobacter species (Pearson P < 0.01), which is strikingly similar to the microbial co-occurrence patterns observed on colorectal cancers ( Warren et al., 2013). Increased abundance of the acetaldehydogenic microorganism Rothia mucilaginosa was also apparent on oral leukoplakias from lingual sites ( P 0.0012). Severe dysplasia was associated with elevated levels of Leptotrichia spp. and Campylobacter concisus ( P < 0.05). Oral leukoplakia exhibits an altered microbiota that has similarities to the microbiome of colorectal cancer.

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          Evidence for a causal association between human papillomavirus and a subset of head and neck cancers.

          High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are etiologic agents for anogenital tract cancers and have been detected in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). We investigated, retrospectively, an etiologic role for HPVs in a large series of patients with HNSCC. Tumor tissues from 253 patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent HNSCC were tested for the presence of HPV genome by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays, Southern blot hybridization, and in situ hybridization. The viral E6 coding region was sequenced to confirm the presence of tumor-specific viral isolates. Exons 5-9 of the TP53 gene were sequenced from 166 specimens. The hazard of death from HNSCC in patients with and without HPV-positive tumors was determined by proportional hazards regression analysis. HPV was detected in 62 (25%) of 253 cases (95% confidence interval [CI] = 19%-30%). High-risk, tumorigenic type HPV16 was identified in 90% of the HPV-positive tumors. HPV16 was localized specifically by in situ hybridization within the nuclei of cancer cells in preinvasive, invasive, and lymph node disease. Southern blot hybridization patterns were consistent with viral integration. Poor tumor grade (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.2- 4.9) and oropharyngeal site (OR = 6.2; 95% CI = 3.1-12.1) independently increased the probability of HPV presence. As compared with HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancers, HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers were less likely to occur among moderate to heavy drinkers (OR = 0.17; 95% CI = 0.05-0.61) and smokers (OR = 0.16; 95% CI = 0.02-1.4), had a characteristic basaloid morphology (OR = 18.7; 95% CI = 2.1-167), were less likely to have TP53 mutations (OR = 0.06; 95% CI = 0.01-0. 36), and had improved disease-specific survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.07-0.98). After adjustment for the presence of lymph node disease (HR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.4- 3.8), heavy alcohol consumption (HR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.4-4.7), and age greater than 60 years old (HR = 1.4; 95% CI = 0.8-2.3), all patients with HPV-positive tumors had a 59% reduction in risk of death from cancer when compared with HPV-negative HNSCC patients (HR = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.20-0.88). These data extend recent molecular and epidemiologic studies and strongly suggest that HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers comprise a distinct molecular, clinical, and pathologic disease entity that is likely causally associated with HPV infection and that has a markedly improved prognosis.
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            Cigarette smoking and the oral microbiome in a large study of American adults.

            Oral microbiome dysbiosis is associated with oral disease and potentially with systemic diseases; however, the determinants of these microbial imbalances are largely unknown. In a study of 1204 US adults, we assessed the relationship of cigarette smoking with the oral microbiome. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on DNA from oral wash samples, sequences were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using QIIME and metagenomic content was inferred using PICRUSt. Overall oral microbiome composition differed between current and non-current (former and never) smokers (P<0.001). Current smokers had lower relative abundance of the phylum Proteobacteria (4.6%) compared with never smokers (11.7%) (false discovery rate q=5.2 × 10(-7)), with no difference between former and never smokers; the depletion of Proteobacteria in current smokers was also observed at class, genus and OTU levels. Taxa not belonging to Proteobacteria were also associated with smoking: the genera Capnocytophaga, Peptostreptococcus and Leptotrichia were depleted, while Atopobium and Streptococcus were enriched, in current compared with never smokers. Functional analysis from inferred metagenomes showed that bacterial genera depleted by smoking were related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and to xenobiotic metabolism. Our findings demonstrate that smoking alters the oral microbiome, potentially leading to shifts in functional pathways with implications for smoking-related diseases.
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              The salivary microbiota as a diagnostic indicator of oral cancer: A descriptive, non-randomized study of cancer-free and oral squamous cell carcinoma subjects

              Background The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if the salivary counts of 40 common oral bacteria in subjects with an oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) lesion would differ from those found in cancer-free (OSCC-free) controls. Methods Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 229 OSCC-free and 45 OSCC subjects and evaluated for their content of 40 common oral bacteria using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. DNA counts per ml saliva were determined for each species, averaged across subjects in the 2 subject groups, and significance of differences between groups determined using the Mann-Whitney test and adjusted for multiple comparisons. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in detection of OSCC by levels of salivary organisms were computed and comparisons made separately between a non-matched group of 45 OSCC subjects and 229 controls and a group of 45 OSCC subjects and 45 controls matched by age, gender and smoking history. Results Counts of 3 of the 40 species tested, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Prevotella melaninogenica and Streptococcus mitis, were elevated in the saliva of individuals with OSCC (p < 0.001). When tested as diagnostic markers the 3 species were found to predict 80% of cancer cases (sensitivity) while excluding 83% of controls (specificity) in the non-matched group. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in the matched group were 80% and 82% respectively. Conclusion High salivary counts of C. gingivalis, P. melaninogenica and S. mitis may be diagnostic indicators of OSCC.

                Author and article information

                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                01 December 2017
                : 8
                [1] 1Division of Oral Biosciences, School of Dental Science, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin Dental University Hospital , Dublin, Ireland
                [2] 2Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology, School of Dental Science, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin Dental University Hospital , Dublin, Ireland
                Author notes

                Edited by: John R. Battista, Louisiana State University, United States

                Reviewed by: Nicola Segata, University of Trento, Italy; Donnabella Castillo Lacap-Bugler, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand

                *Correspondence: Gary P. Moran, gpmoran@ 123456dental.tcd.ie

                This article was submitted to Evolutionary and Genomic Microbiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Copyright © 2017 Amer, Galvin, Healy and Moran.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 40, Pages: 10, Words: 0
                Funded by: Ministry of Education 10.13039/100010449
                Original Research

                Microbiology & Virology
                microbiome,oral leukoplakia,oral cancer,fusobacteria,campylobacter,rothia mucilaginosa


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