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      Stems and leaves of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. as potential herbal resources for treating rheumatoid arthritis: Chemical analysis, toxicity and activity evaluation

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          According to folk usage of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx., the present study was designed to determine the feasibility of the stems and leaves of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. as a new medicinal resource. Fourteen alkaloids in mother roots, fibrous roots, stems, and leaves of Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. were measured by HPLC-MS/MS. And multivariate analysis methods, such as clustering analysis and principal component analysis, were applied to analyze the difference among various parts. In addition, the acute toxicity, analgesia, and anti-inflammatory tests were carried out. The results suggested that the contents of alkaloids in mother roots and fibrous roots were approximate, but those of leaves and stems were different from mother roots and fibrous roots. The results of the acute toxicity testing demonstrated the toxicity of fibrous root was strongest, and mother roots were slightly less toxic than fibrous roots. The stems and leaves were far less toxic than mother and fibrous roots. In addition, the analgesia and inflammatory tests showed the effects of the various tissues had no difference each other. These results provided a basis for developing new complementary and alternative treatments for rheumatoid arthritis patients. Simultaneously, the approach may also turn wastes into treasure and promote the development of circular economy.

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          A review on phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the processed lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux.

          The processed lateral root of Aconitum carmichaelii Debeaux (Ranunculaceae), an extensively used traditional Chinese medicine, is known as Fuzi in China (Chinese: ), "bushi" in Japan, "Kyeong-Po Buja" in Korea, Chinese aconite, monkshood or Chinese wolfsbane. It has been used to treat shock resulting from acute myocardial infarction, low blood pressure, coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, etc.
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            Quantitative and chemical fingerprint analysis for quality control of rhizoma Coptidischinensis based on UPLC-PAD combined with chemometrics methods.

            To control the quality of rhizoma Coptidis, a method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PAD) was developed for quantitative analysis of five active alkaloids and chemical fingerprint analysis. In quantitative analysis, the five alkaloids showed good regression (R > 0.9992) within test ranges and the recovery of the method was in the range of 98.4-100.8%. The limit of detections and quantifications for five alkaloids in PAD were less than 0.07 and 0.22 microg/ml, respectively. In order to compare the UPLC fingerprints between rhizoma Coptidis from different origins, the chemometrics procedures, including similarity analysis (SA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to classify the rhizoma Coptidis samples according to their cultivated origins. Consistent results were obtained to show that rhizoma Coptidis samples could be successfully grouped in accordance with the province of origin. Furthermore, five marker constituents were screened out to be the main chemical marker, which could be applied to accurate discrimination and quality control for rhizoma Coptidis by quantitative analysis. This study revealed that UPLC-PAD method was simple, sensitive and reliable for quantitative and chemical fingerprint analysis, moreover, for the quality evaluation and control of rhizoma Coptidis.
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              A review on phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology studies of Aconitum.

              A number of species belonging to herbal genus Aconitum are well-known and popular for their medicinal benefits in Indian, Vietnamese, Korean, Japanese, Tibetan and Chinese systems of medicine. It is a valuable drug as well as an unpredictable toxic material. It is therefore imperative to understand and control the toxic potential of herbs from this genus. In this review, the ethnomedicinal, phytochemistry, pharmacology, structure activity relationship and toxicology studies of Aconitum were presented to add to knowledge for their safe application. A total of about 76 of all aconite species growing in China and surrounding far-east and Asian countries are used for various medical purposes. The main ingredients of aconite species are alkaloids, flavonoids, free fatty acids and polysaccharides. The tuberous roots of genus Aconitum are commonly applied for various diseases such as rheumatic fever, painful joints and some endocrinal disorders. It stimulates the tip of sensory nerve fibres. These tubers of Aconitum are used in the herbal medicines only after processing. There remain high toxicological risks of the improper medicinal applications of Aconitum. The cardio and neurotoxicities of this herb are potentially lethal. Many analytical methods have been reported for quantitatively and qualitatively characterization of Aconitum. Aconitum is a plant of great importance both in traditional medicine in general and in TCM in particular. Much attention should be put on Aconitum because of its narrow therapeutic range. However, Aconitum's toxicity can be reduced using different techniques and then benefit from its pharmacological activities. New methods, approaches and techniques should be developed for chemical and toxicological analysis to improve its quality and safety. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

                Author and article information

                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                20 September 2018
                : 16
                : 9
                : 644-652
                1State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Systematic Research, Development and Utilization of Chinese Medicine Resources, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, China
                2Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical College, Zunyi 563000, China
                3Sichuan Good Doctor Panxi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Xichang 615000, China
                4Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330004, China
                Author notes
                *Corresponding authors: ZHANG Ding-Kun, E-mails: 465790643@ ; YANG Ming, yangming16@

                These authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

                Copyright © 2018 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
                Funded by: Sichuan Provincial Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine Research Project
                Award ID: 2018NQ008
                This work was supported by the Sichuan Provincial Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine Research Project (No. 2018NQ008).
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