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      A comparison of methods for mapping species ranges and species richness

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      Global Ecology and Biogeography

      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Conservatism of ecological niches in evolutionary time

          Theory predicts low niche differentiation between species over evolutionary time scales, but little empirical evidence is available. Reciprocal geographic predictions based on ecological niche models of sister taxon pairs of birds, mammals, and butterflies in southern Mexico indicate niche conservatism over several million years of independent evolution (between putative sister taxon pairs) but little conservatism at the level of families. Niche conservatism over such time scales indicates that speciation takes place in geographic, not ecological, dimensions and that ecological differences evolve later.
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            On the relationship between niche and distribution

             H.R. Pulliam (2000)
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              Global hotspots of species richness are not congruent with endemism or threat.

              Biodiversity hotspots have a prominent role in conservation biology, but it remains controversial to what extent different types of hotspot are congruent. Previous studies were unable to provide a general answer because they used a single biodiversity index, were geographically restricted, compared areas of unequal size or did not quantitatively compare hotspot types. Here we use a new global database on the breeding distribution of all known extant bird species to test for congruence across three types of hotspot. We demonstrate that hotspots of species richness, threat and endemism do not show the same geographical distribution. Only 2.5% of hotspot areas are common to all three aspects of diversity, with over 80% of hotspots being idiosyncratic. More generally, there is a surprisingly low overall congruence of biodiversity indices, with any one index explaining less than 24% of variation in the other indices. These results suggest that, even within a single taxonomic class, different mechanisms are responsible for the origin and maintenance of different aspects of diversity. Consequently, the different types of hotspots also vary greatly in their utility as conservation tools.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Global Ecology and Biogeography
                Global Ecol Biogeography
                Wiley-Blackwell
                1466-822X
                1466-8238
                November 2006
                November 2006
                : 15
                : 6
                : 578-587
                Article
                10.1111/j.1466-8238.2006.00257.x
                © 2006

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