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      Development of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for the identification of lice isolated from farm animals Translated title: Développement de la spectrométrie de masse MALDI-TOF MS pour l’identification de poux isolés d’animaux de ferme

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          Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is now routinely used for the rapid identification of microorganisms isolated from clinical samples and has been recently successfully applied to the identification of arthropods. In the present study, this proteomics tool was used to identify lice collected from livestock and poultry in Algeria. The MALDI-TOF MS spectra of 408 adult specimens were measured for 14 species, including Bovicola bovis, B. ovis, B. caprae, Haematopinus eurysternus, Linognathus africanus, L. vituli, Solenopotes capillatus , Menacanthus stramineus, Menopon gallinae, Chelopistes meleagridis, Goniocotes gallinae, Goniodes gigas, Lipeurus caponis and laboratory reared Pediculus humanus corporis. Good quality spectra were obtained for 305 samples. Spectral analysis revealed intra-species reproducibility and inter-species specificity that were consistent with the morphological classification. A blind test of 248 specimens was performed against the in-lab database upgraded with new spectra and validated using molecular tools. With identification percentages ranging from 76% to 100% alongside high identification scores (mean = 2.115), this study proposes MALDI-TOF MS as an effective tool for discriminating lice species.

          Translated abstract

          La Spectrométrie de Masse à Temps de Vol par Désorption/Ionisation Laser Assistée après Matrice est maintenant utilisée pour l’identification rapide des microorganismes isolés à partir d’échantillons cliniques et a récemment été appliquée avec succès pour l’identification des arthropodes. Dans cette étude, cet outil protéomique a été utilisé pour identifier les poux prélevés sur le bétail et la volaille en Algérie. Les spectres MALDI-TOF MS de 408 spécimens adultes ont été mesurés pour 14 espèces, dont Bovicola bovis, B. ovis, B. caprae, Haematopinus eurysternus, Linognathus africanus, L. vituli, Solenopotes capillatus, Menacanthus stramineus, Menopon gallinae, Chelopistes meleagridis, Goniocotes gallinae, Goniodes gigas, Lipeurus caponis et Pediculus humanus corporis élevé en laboratoire. Des spectres de bonne qualité ont été obtenus pour 305 échantillons. L’analyse spectrale a révélé une reproductibilité intra-espèce et une spécificité inter-espèces qui concordaient avec la classification morphologique. Un test à l’aveugle de 248 échantillons a été effectué par rapport à la base de données de notre laboratoire mise à niveau avec de nouveaux spectres et validée à l’aide d’outils moléculaires. Avec des pourcentages d’identification allant de 76 à 100 % et des scores d’identification élevés (moyenne : 2,115), cette étude propose MALDI-TOF MS comme un outil efficace pour distinguer les espèces de poux.

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          Most cited references 53

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          Ongoing revolution in bacteriology: routine identification of bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

          Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry accurately identifies both selected bacteria and bacteria in select clinical situations. It has not been evaluated for routine use in the clinic. We prospectively analyzed routine MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identification in parallel with conventional phenotypic identification of bacteria regardless of phylum or source of isolation. Discrepancies were resolved by 16S ribosomal RNA and rpoB gene sequence-based molecular identification. Colonies (4 spots per isolate directly deposited on the MALDI-TOF plate) were analyzed using an Autoflex II Bruker Daltonik mass spectrometer. Peptidic spectra were compared with the Bruker BioTyper database, version 2.0, and the identification score was noted. Delays and costs of identification were measured. Of 1660 bacterial isolates analyzed, 95.4% were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry; 84.1% were identified at the species level, and 11.3% were identified at the genus level. In most cases, absence of identification (2.8% of isolates) and erroneous identification (1.7% of isolates) were due to improper database entries. Accurate MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identification was significantly correlated with having 10 reference spectra in the database (P=.01). The mean time required for MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identification of 1 isolate was 6 minutes for an estimated 22%-32% cost of current methods of identification. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry is a cost-effective, accurate method for routine identification of bacterial isolates in or =10 reference spectra per bacterial species and a 1.9 identification score (Brucker system). It may replace Gram staining and biochemical identification in the near future.
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            Ticks and tickborne bacterial diseases in humans: an emerging infectious threat.

             P. Parola,  D Raoult (2001)
            Ticks are currently considered to be second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human infectious diseases in the world. Each tick species has preferred environmental conditions and biotopes that determine the geographic distribution of the ticks and, consequently, the risk areas for tickborne diseases. This is particularly the case when ticks are vectors and reservoirs of the pathogens. Since the identification of Borrelia burgdorferi as the agent of Lyme disease in 1982, 15 ixodid-borne bacterial pathogens have been described throughout the world, including 8 rickettsiae, 3 ehrlichiae, and 4 species of the Borrelia burgdorferi complex. This article reviews and illustrate various aspects of the biology of ticks and the tickborne bacterial diseases (rickettsioses, ehrlichioses, Lyme disease, relapsing fever borrelioses, tularemia, Q fever), particularly those regarded as emerging diseases. Methods are described for the detection and isolation of bacteria from ticks and advice is given on how tick bites may be prevented and how clinicians should deal with patients who have been bitten by ticks.
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              Emerging tools for identification of arthropod vectors.

              The rapid and reliable identification of arthropod vector species is an essential component of the fight against vector-borne diseases. However, owing to the lack of entomological expertise required for the morphological identification method, development of alternative and complementary tools is needed. This review describes the main methods used for arthropod identification, focusing on the emergence of protein profiling using MALDI-TOF MS technology. Sample preparation, analysis of reproducibility, database creation and blind tests for controlling accuracy of this tool for arthropod identification are described. The advantages and limitations of the MALDI-TOF MS method are illustrated by emphasizing different hematophagous arthropods, including mosquitoes and ticks, the top two main vectors of infectious diseases.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                30 April 2020
                : 27
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2020/01 )
                [1 ] Aix Marseille Univ., IRD, AP-HM, SSA, VITROME 13005 Marseille France
                [2 ] IHU-Méditerranée Infection 19–21 Boulevard Jean Moulin 13005 Marseille France
                [3 ] Université Chadli Bendjdid, Département des sciences Vétérinaire 36000 El Tarf Algeria
                [4 ] Institut des Sciences Vétérinaire et Agronomiques, Université Mohamed Cherif Messaadia 41000 Souk-Ahras Algeria
                [5 ] Aix Marseille Univ., IRD, AP-HM, MEPHI 13005 Marseille France
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: philippe.parola@ 123456univ-amu.fr
                parasite190111 10.1051/parasite/2020026
                © B. Ouarti et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2020

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 5, Equations: 0, References: 52, Pages: 14
                Research Article

                maldi-tof ms, lice, phthiraptera, anoplura, mallophaga


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