Female Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) produce a sex pheromone to attract males. In the present study, we tested two hypotheses: (i) production of sex pheromone in H. axyridis is conditioned by perception of prey in their vicinity, and (ii) virgin females invest in the production of the sex pheromone, while mated females reduce their pheromone emissions. To test the first hypothesis, newly hatched larvae were divided into three groups: those fed with Ephestia kuehniella eggs, those fed with pea aphids, and those exposed to aphid volatile cues but fed with Ephestia eggs. All females produced a pheromone blend of five-components in similar relative proportions, but with contrasting absolute quantities: Females fed with Ephestia eggs produced lower amounts of pheromone (0.5 ± 0.4 ng.female-1), compared to females fed with aphids (44.2 ± 24.4 ng.female-1). The females of the third group produced intermediate concentrations of pheromone (6.0 ± 3.2 ng.female-1). To test the second hypothesis, two groups of lady beetles were made: one group of females was placed in the presence of males, while females of the other group were not. Mated and virgin females produced statistically similar amounts of pheromone (144.1 ± 49.7 ng and 43.7 ± 24.1 ng.female-1, respectively). These results suggest that H. axyridis females initiate pheromone production upon exposure to volatile cues released by their aphids prey. Females continue to release sex pheromone after mating, probably to increase the chance of multiple mating which is known to improve egg fertility.