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      Relationship between Polymorphism in the Angiotensinogen, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme or Angiotensin II Receptor and Renal Progression in Japanese NIDDM Patients

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          We determined the relationship between the gene polymorphism of angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), or angiotensin II receptor (AT1R) and the progression of diabetic nephropathy in a multicenter trial of ethnically homogeneous Japanese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM). Gene polymorphism of ACE I/D, AGT M235T and AT1R A1166C was determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification using allele-specific primers. Japanese NIDDM patients (n = 1,152) were selected from several diabetic clinics. All patients were divided into three groups as follows: (1) group I (n = 407): normoalbuminuric patients; (2) group II (n = 327): microalbuminuric patients, and (3) group III (n = 418): overt albuminuric patients. Clinical factors for investigation in all patients were the date of birth, gender, levels of urinary albumin excretion, findings of the ocular fundus, duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A1c and blood pressure. It appears that genetic polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin systems, i.e. ACE or AT1R, may affect the progression to renal failure of patients (especially females) with NIDDM.

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          A prospective evaluation of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme gene polymorphism and the risk of ischemic heart disease.

          In a previous study, men with a history of myocardial infarction were found to have an increased prevalence of homozygosity for the deletional allele (D) of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) gene. The D allele is associated with higher levels of ACE, which may predispose a person to ischemic heart disease. We investigated the association between the ACE genotype and the incidence of myocardial infarction, as well as other manifestations of ischemic heart disease, in a large, prospective cohort of U.S. male physicians. In the Physicians' Health Study, ischemic heart disease as defined by angina, coronary revascularization, or myocardial infarction developed in 1250 men by 1992. They were matched with 2340 controls according to age and smoking history. Zygosity for the deletion-insertion (D-I) polymorphism of the ACE gene was determined by an assay based on the polymerase chain reaction. Data were analyzed for both matched pairs and unmatched samples, with adjustment for the effects of known or suspected risk factors by conditional and nonconditional logistic regression, respectively. The ACE genotype was not associated with the occurrence of either ischemic heart disease or myocardial infarction. The adjusted relative risk associated with the D allele was 1.07 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.19; P = 0.24) for ischemic heart disease and 1.05 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.89 to 1.25; P = 0.56) for myocardial infarction, if an additive mode of inheritance is assumed. Additional analyses assuming dominant and recessive effects of the D allele also failed to show any association, as did the examination of low-risk subgroups. In a large, prospectively followed population of U.S. male physicians, the presence of the D allele of the ACE gene conferred no appreciable increase in the risk of ischemic heart disease or myocardial infarction.
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            Synergistic effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin-II type 1 receptor gene polymorphisms on risk of myocardial infarction


              Author and article information

              S. Karger AG
              June 1999
              04 June 1999
              : 82
              : 2
              : 139-144
              aDivision of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, bShiga University of Medical Science, Shiga, cFukushima Medical College, Fukushima, dTokyo University, eTokyo Jikeikai Medical College, Tokyo, Japan
              45390 Nephron 1999;82:139–144
              © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 42, Pages: 6
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