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      Distribution of Vibrio alginolyticus-like species in Shenzhen coastal waters, China

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          We investigated the distribution of vibrios in Shenzhen coastal waters in order to obtain valuable information for the aquaculture industry and a health warning system. Quantities of vibrios from surface waters ranged from 0 to 4.40×10 4 CFUs mL -1 in April (spring), while from 0 to 2.57×10 3 CFUs mL -1 in September (autumn); the abundance of V. alginolyticus-like species from surface water ranged from 0 to 6.72×10 3 CFUs mL -1 in April (spring) and from 0 to 1.28×10 3 CFUs mL -1 in September (autumn); higher counts were observed in spring. The V. alginolyticus-like species was dominant in Shenzhen coastal waters, with the highest abundance in the clean region (stations YMK001 and GDN064) in April, suggesting that Vibrio spp. were naturally occurring bacteria in marine environments. The correlation between the abundance of vibrios (including V. alginolyticus-like species) and environmental factors varied in different regions and different seasons. There were no vibrios detected when the salinity was less than 11.15‰ in the Zhujiang River estuary, which indicated that salinity played a key role in the distribution of vibrios and V. alginolyticus-like species.

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          Archaea in coastal marine environments.

          Archaea (archaebacteria) are a phenotypically diverse group of microorganisms that share a common evolutionary history. There are four general phenotypic groups of archaea: the methanogens, the extreme halophiles, the sulfate-reducing archaea, and the extreme thermophiles. In the marine environment, archaeal habitats are generally limited to shallow or deep-sea anaerobic sediments (free-living and endosymbiotic methanogens), hot springs or deep-sea hydrothermal vents (methanogens, sulfate reducers, and extreme thermophiles), and highly saline land-locked seas (halophiles). This report provides evidence for the widespread occurrence of unusual archaea in oxygenated coastal surface waters of North America. Quantitative estimates indicated that up to 2% of the total ribosomal RNA extracted from coastal bacterioplankton assemblages was archaeal. Archaeal small-subunit ribosomal RNA-encoding DNAs (rDNAs) were cloned from mixed bacterioplankton populations collected at geographically distant sampling sites. Phylogenetic and nucleotide signature analyses of these cloned rDNAs revealed the presence of two lineages of archaea, each sharing the diagnostic signatures and structural features previously established for the domain Archaea. Both of these lineages were found in bacterioplankton populations collected off the east and west coasts of North America. The abundance and distribution of these archaea in oxic coastal surface waters suggests that these microorganisms represent undescribed physiological types of archaea, which reside and compete with aerobic, mesophilic eubacteria in marine coastal environments.
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            Thirteen Ways to Look at the Correlation Coefficient

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              Role of iron in regulation of virulence genes.

              The abilities of bacterial pathogens to adapt to the environment within the host are essential to their virulence. Microorganisms have adapted to the iron limitation present in mammalian hosts by evolving diverse mechanisms for the assimilation of iron sufficient for growth. In addition, many bacterial pathogens have used the low concentration of iron present in the host as an important signal to enhance the expression of a wide variety of bacterial toxins and other virulence determinants. The molecular basis of coordinate regulation by iron has been most thoroughly studied in Escherichia coli. In this organism, coordinate regulation of gene expression by iron depends on the regulatory gene, fur. Regulation of gene expression by iron in a number of pathogenic organisms is coordinated by proteins homologous to the Fur protein of E. coli. Additional regulatory proteins may be superimposed on the Fur repressor to provide the fine-tuning necessary for the precise regulation of individual virulence genes in response to iron and other environmental signals. Studies of the mechanisms of regulation of iron acquisition systems and virulence determinants by iron should lead to a better understanding of the adaptive response of bacteria to the low-iron environment of the host and its importance in virulence.

                Author and article information

                Braz J Microbiol
                Braz. J. Microbiol
                Brazilian Journal of Microbiology
                Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
                Jul-Sep 2011
                1 September 2011
                : 42
                : 3
                : 884-896
                [1 ]Key Lab of MOE for Coast and Wetland Ecosystem, School of Life Science, Xiamen University , Xiamen 361005, China
                [2 ]Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration , 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005, China
                [3 ]Key Lab for Coastal and Atmospheric Research, PKU-HKUST Shenzhen-Hongkong Institution Industry Education Research , Shenzhen 518048, China
                [4 ]College of Chemical Engineering, Huaqiao university , 668 Jimei Road, Xiamen, 361021, China
                Author notes
                * Corresponding Author. Mailing address: He-Yang Li, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, 178 Daxue Road, Xiamen 361005, China.; Tel: +86-592-219-5769 Fax: +86-592-219-5769.; E-mail: heyangli@ / Tian-Ling Zheng, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China, 361005.; Tel: +86-592-2183217 Fax: +86-592-2184528.; E-mail: wshwzh@
                © Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia

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                Environmental Microbiology
                Research Paper


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