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      Prevention and Management of Type 2 Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome in the Time of COVID-19: Should We Add a Cup of Coffee?

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          Abstract

          Recent evidence shows that COVID-19 patients with existing metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome, are exposed to a high risk of morbidity and mortality. At the same time, in order to manage the pandemic, the health authorities around the world are advising people to stay at home. This results in decreased physical activity and an increased consumption of an unhealthy diet, which often leads to an increase in body weight, risk for diabetes, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome, and thus, paradoxically, to a high risk of morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19 complications. Here we summarize the evidence demonstrating that the promotion of a healthy life style, including physical activity and a dietary intake of natural polyphenols present in coffee and tea, has the potential to improve the prevention and management of insulin resistance and diabetes in the time of COVID-19 pandemic. Particularly, it would be pertinent to evaluate further the potential positive effects of coffee beverages, rich in natural polyphenols, as an adjuvant therapy for COVID-19, which appear not to be studied sufficiently.

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          Most cited references 108

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          SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor

          Summary The recent emergence of the novel, pathogenic SARS-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in China and its rapid national and international spread pose a global health emergency. Cell entry of coronaviruses depends on binding of the viral spike (S) proteins to cellular receptors and on S protein priming by host cell proteases. Unravelling which cellular factors are used by SARS-CoV-2 for entry might provide insights into viral transmission and reveal therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 uses the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 for entry and the serine protease TMPRSS2 for S protein priming. A TMPRSS2 inhibitor approved for clinical use blocked entry and might constitute a treatment option. Finally, we show that the sera from convalescent SARS patients cross-neutralized SARS-2-S-driven entry. Our results reveal important commonalities between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection and identify a potential target for antiviral intervention.
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            The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

            Altered vitamin D and calcium homeostasis may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION AND ANALYSES: MEDLINE review was conducted through January 2007 for observational studies and clinical trials in adults with outcomes related to glucose homeostasis. When data were available to combine, meta-analyses were performed, and summary odds ratios (OR) are presented. Observational studies show a relatively consistent association between low vitamin D status, calcium or dairy intake, and prevalent type 2 DM or metabolic syndrome [OR (95% confidence interval): type 2 DM prevalence, 0.36 (0.16-0.80) among nonblacks for highest vs. lowest 25-hydroxyvitamin D; metabolic syndrome prevalence, 0.71 (0.57-0.89) for highest vs. lowest dairy intake]. There are also inverse associations with incident type 2 DM or metabolic syndrome [OR (95% confidence interval): type 2 DM incidence, 0.82 (0.72-0.93) for highest vs. lowest combined vitamin D and calcium intake; 0.86 (0.79-0.93) for highest vs. lowest dairy intake]. Evidence from trials with vitamin D and/or calcium supplementation suggests that combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation may have a role in the prevention of type 2 DM only in populations at high risk (i.e. glucose intolerance). The available evidence is limited because most observational studies are cross-sectional and did not adjust for important confounders, whereas intervention studies were short in duration, included few subjects, used a variety of formulations of vitamin D and calcium, or did post hoc analyses. Vitamin D and calcium insufficiency may negatively influence glycemia, whereas combined supplementation with both nutrients may be beneficial in optimizing glucose metabolism.
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              A crucial role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in SARS coronavirus–induced lung injury

              During several months of 2003, a newly identified illness termed severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) spread rapidly through the world 1,2,3 . A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was identified as the SARS pathogen 4,5,6,7 , which triggered severe pneumonia and acute, often lethal, lung failure 8 . Moreover, among infected individuals influenza such as the Spanish flu 9,10 and the emergence of new respiratory disease viruses 11,12 have caused high lethality resulting from acute lung failure 13 . In cell lines, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as a potential SARS-CoV receptor 14 . The high lethality of SARS-CoV infections, its enormous economic and social impact, fears of renewed outbreaks as well as the potential misuse of such viruses as biologic weapons make it paramount to understand the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV. Here we provide the first genetic proof that ACE2 is a crucial SARS-CoV receptor in vivo. SARS-CoV infections and the Spike protein of the SARS-CoV reduce ACE2 expression. Notably, injection of SARS-CoV Spike into mice worsens acute lung failure in vivo that can be attenuated by blocking the renin-angiotensin pathway. These results provide a molecular explanation why SARS-CoV infections cause severe and often lethal lung failure and suggest a rational therapy for SARS and possibly other respiratory disease viruses. Supplementary information The online version of this article (doi:10.1038/nm1267) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Nutr
                Front Nutr
                Front. Nutr.
                Frontiers in Nutrition
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-861X
                06 October 2020
                2020
                06 October 2020
                : 7
                Affiliations
                1College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Khalifa University , Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
                2Association South East European Network for Medical Research-SOVE , Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
                3Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam , Rotterdam, Netherlands
                Author notes

                Edited by: Giuseppe Grosso, NNEdPro Global Centre for Nutrition and Health, United Kingdom

                Reviewed by: Agnieszka Micek, Jagiellonian University, Poland; Cristian Ricci, University Hospital Leipzig, Germany

                This article was submitted to Nutritional Epidemiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Nutrition

                Article
                10.3389/fnut.2020.581680
                7573071
                Copyright © 2020 Semiz and Serdarevic.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 108, Pages: 7, Words: 6682
                Funding
                Funded by: Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research 10.13039/501100004070
                Categories
                Nutrition
                Mini Review

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