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      Comparative Effects of Enalapril, Atenolol and Chlorthalidone on Blood Pressure and Kidney Function of Diabetic Patients Affected by Arterial Hypertension and Persistent Proteinuria

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          Abstract

          Arterial hypertension and proteinuric nephropathy are common features in diabetic patients. In streptozotocin-diabetic rats, it has been possible to reduce the blood pressure and proteinuria by converting enzyme inhibitors, and so slowing the decline of kidney function. These results have been confirmed in diabetic patients affected by arterial hypertension and persistent proteinuria. However, up to now it has not been clear if these favorable renal effects are related specifically to converting enzyme inhibition. In the attempt to clarify this last point, from a practical as well as from a speculative point of view, 12 type 2 diabetic outpatients affected by mild to moderate arterial hypertension and persistent macroalbuminuria (greater than 250 mg/daily, at least on three consecutive occasions) without any other signs of renal diseases were studied. In a randomized sequence and in a double blind fashion, after a washout period of 3 weeks, the patients underwent pharmacological treatment which consisted of enalapril 20 mg o.d., chlorthalidone 12.5 mg o.d., atenolol 50 mg o.d. and placebo o.d. Each treatment lasted 45 days. Kidney function, blood pressure and heart rate were checked at the beginning and at the end of each treatment, while urinary albumin excretion was measured at the end of the 4th, 5th, and 6th week of each treatment. Blood pressure significantly decreased in a similar fashion after each active treatment, while kidney function did not change significantly. Urinary albumin excretion rate significantly decreased after enalapril and atenolol, but did not change after chlorthalidone. According to these results we can hypothesize that the inhibition of tissue angiotensin formation and its related change on the glomerular permeability, rather than renal and systemic hemodynamic features, seem to be the common mechanisms by which both enalapril as well as atenolol decrease the albuminuria in our patients.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          NEF
          Nephron
          10.1159/issn.1660-8151
          Nephron
          S. Karger AG
          1660-8151
          2235-3186
          1991
          1991
          11 December 2008
          : 58
          : 1
          : 52-57
          Affiliations
          Centra per lo Studio e la Terapia dell’Ipertensione, Ospedale Generale Umberto I, Siracusa, Italy
          Article
          186378 Nephron 1991;58:52–57
          10.1159/000186378
          1857482
          © 1991 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 6
          Categories
          Original Paper

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