+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      The Potential of Children's Rearing Environment to Overcome Genetic Propensity for Low Reading Achievement


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Genetic studies show that children's reading achievement is in part genetically influenced, and intervention studies show that reading achievement can be increased by environmental interventions. However, correlational and mean‐level analytic strategies are rarely integrated into achievement research, potentially leading to misinterpretation of results. The parent‐offspring adoption design offers a novel opportunity to examine the independent and joint roles of genetic and rearing environmental contributions. The sample included 344 adopted children in first grade and their biological and adoptive parents. Results indicated that adoptees' reading scores were correlated with their biological parents' scores, but not with their adoptive parents' scores, suggesting genetic influences. In addition, examination of mean scores indicated that adoptees' scores were significantly greater than their biological parents' ( p's < .001) for all subtests, suggesting promotive effects of the rearing environment. This pattern was present even when biological parents scored >1 standard deviation below the biological parent mean on achievement.

          LAY ABSTRACT

          We investigated reading achievement in first‐grade adopted children. Adoptees with higher reading scores had biological parents with higher reading achievement, but this association between parent and child was not present between adoptee and adoptive parents. However, adoptees' reading scores were more similar in mean value to their adoptive parents' scores than to their biological parents'. The findings underscore that childhood reading is genetically influenced, while also showing that one's rearing environment has an important effect that transcends genetic predispositions.

          Related collections

          Most cited references36

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Gene discovery and polygenic prediction from a genome-wide association study of educational attainment in 1.1 million individuals

          Here we conducted a large-scale genetic association analysis of educational attainment in a sample of approximately 1.1 million individuals and identify 1,271 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs. For the SNPs taken together, we found evidence of heterogeneous effects across environments. The SNPs implicate genes involved in brain-development processes and neuron-to-neuron communication. In a separate analysis of the X chromosome, we identify 10 independent genome-wide-significant SNPs and estimate a SNP heritability of around 0.3% in both men and women, consistent with partial dosage compensation. A joint (multi-phenotype) analysis of educational attainment and three related cognitive phenotypes generates polygenic scores that explain 11-13% of the variance in educational attainment and 7-10% of the variance in cognitive performance. This prediction accuracy substantially increases the utility of polygenic scores as tools in research.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Genotype-environment interaction and correlation in the analysis of human behavior.

              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              Genetics and intelligence differences: five special findings

              Intelligence is a core construct in differential psychology and behavioural genetics, and should be so in cognitive neuroscience. It is one of the best predictors of important life outcomes such as education, occupation, mental and physical health and illness, and mortality. Intelligence is one of the most heritable behavioural traits. Here, we highlight five genetic findings that are special to intelligence differences and that have important implications for its genetic architecture and for gene-hunting expeditions. (i) The heritability of intelligence increases from about 20% in infancy to perhaps 80% in later adulthood. (ii) Intelligence captures genetic effects on diverse cognitive and learning abilities, which correlate phenotypically about 0.30 on average but correlate genetically about 0.60 or higher. (iii) Assortative mating is greater for intelligence (spouse correlations ~0.40) than for other behavioural traits such as personality and psychopathology (~0.10) or physical traits such as height and weight (~0.20). Assortative mating pumps additive genetic variance into the population every generation, contributing to the high narrow heritability (additive genetic variance) of intelligence. (iv) Unlike psychiatric disorders, intelligence is normally distributed with a positive end of exceptional performance that is a model for ‘positive genetics'. (v) Intelligence is associated with education and social class and broadens the causal perspectives on how these three inter-correlated variables contribute to social mobility, and health, illness and mortality differences. These five findings arose primarily from twin studies. They are being confirmed by the first new quantitative genetic technique in a century—Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA)—which estimates genetic influence using genome-wide genotypes in large samples of unrelated individuals. Comparing GCTA results to the results of twin studies reveals important insights into the genetic architecture of intelligence that are relevant to attempts to narrow the ‘missing heritability' gap.

                Author and article information

                Mind Brain Educ
                Mind Brain Educ
                Mind, Brain and Education
                Wiley Subscription Services, Inc. (Hoboken, USA )
                15 July 2022
                November 2022
                : 16
                : 4 , The genome as the source of individual differences in academic achievement ( doiID: 10.1111/mbe.v16.4 )
                : 352-359
                [ 1 ] Prevention Science Institute, University of Oregon
                [ 2 ] Faculty of Education University of Cambridge
                [ 3 ] Department of Psychology The Pennsylvania State University
                [ 4 ] Department of Psychology University of California, Riverside
                [ 5 ] Department of Psychology University of Pittsburgh
                [ 6 ] Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences George Washington University
                [ 7 ] Child Study Center, Yale University
                Author notes
                [*] [* ]Address correspondence to Leslie D. Leve, Prevention Science Institute, University of Oregon, 1600 Millrace, Suite 105, Eugene, OR 97403; e‐mail: leve@ 123456uoregon.edu
                © 2022 The Authors. Mind, Brain, and Education published by International Mind, Brain, and Education Society and Wiley Periodicals LLC.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 16 May 2022
                : 01 May 2021
                : 27 June 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 2, Pages: 8, Words: 5819
                Funded by: Economic and Social Research Council , doi 10.13039/501100000269;
                Award ID: ES/5004467/1
                Funded by: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development , doi 10.13039/100009633;
                Award ID: R01 HD042608
                Funded by: National Institute on Drug Abuse , doi 10.13039/100000026;
                Award ID: R01 DA035062
                Award ID: R01 DA020585
                Funded by: NIH Office of the Director , doi 10.13039/100000052;
                Award ID: UH3 OD023389
                Funded by: Andrew and Virginia Rudd Family Foundation
                Special issue Article
                Custom metadata
                November 2022
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.2.3 mode:remove_FC converted:28.12.2022



                Comment on this article