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      International Journal of Nanomedicine (submit here)

      This international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal by Dove Medical Press focuses on the application of nanotechnology in diagnostics, therapeutics, and drug delivery systems throughout the biomedical field. Sign up for email alerts here.

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      Nanocarrier-Based Therapeutics and Theranostics Drug Delivery Systems for Next Generation of Liver Cancer Nanodrug Modalities

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          Abstract

          The development of therapeutics and theranostic nanodrug delivery systems have posed a challenging task for the current researchers due to the requirement of having various nanocarriers and active agents for better therapy, imaging, and controlled release of drugs efficiently in one platform. The conventional liver cancer chemotherapy has many negative effects such as multiple drug resistance (MDR), high clearance rate, severe side effects, unwanted drug distribution to the specific site of liver cancer and low concentration of drug that finally reaches liver cancer cells. Therefore, it is necessary to develop novel strategies and novel nanocarriers that will carry the drug molecules specific to the affected cancerous hepatocytes in an adequate amount and duration within the therapeutic window. Therapeutics and theranostic systems have advantages over conventional chemotherapy due to the high efficacy of drug loading or drug encapsulation efficiency, high cellular uptake, high drug release, and minimum side effects. These nanocarriers possess high drug accumulation in the tumor area while minimizing toxic effects on healthy tissues. This review focuses on the current research on nanocarrier-based therapeutics and theranostic drug delivery systems excluding the negative consequences of nanotechnology in the field of drug delivery systems. However, clinical developments of theranostics nanocarriers for liver cancer are considered outside of the scope of this article. This review discusses only the recent developments of nanocarrier-based drug delivery systems for liver cancer therapy and diagnosis. The negative consequences of individual nanocarrier in the drug delivery system will also not be covered in this review.

          Most cited references104

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          Analysis of nanoparticle delivery to tumours

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            A new concept for macromolecular therapeutics in cancer chemotherapy: mechanism of tumoritropic accumulation of proteins and the antitumor agent smancs.

            We previously found that a polymer conjugated to the anticancer protein neocarzinostatin, named smancs, accumulated more in tumor tissues than did neocarzinostatin. To determine the general mechanism of this tumoritropic accumulation of smancs and other proteins, we used radioactive (51Cr-labeled) proteins of various molecular sizes (Mr 12,000 to 160,000) and other properties. In addition, we used dye-complexed serum albumin to visualize the accumulation in tumors of tumor-bearing mice. Many proteins progressively accumulated in the tumor tissues of these mice, and a ratio of the protein concentration in the tumor to that in the blood of 5 was obtained within 19 to 72 h. A large protein like immunoglobulin G required a longer time to reach this value of 5. The protein concentration ratio in the tumor to that in the blood of neither 1 nor 5 was achieved with neocarzinostatin, a representative of a small protein (Mr 12,000) in all time. We speculate that the tumoritropic accumulation of these proteins resulted because of the hypervasculature, an enhanced permeability to even macromolecules, and little recovery through either blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. This accumulation of macromolecules in the tumor was also found after i.v. injection of an albumin-dye complex (Mr 69,000), as well as after injection into normal and tumor tissues. The complex was retained only by tumor tissue for prolonged periods. There was little lymphatic recovery of macromolecules from tumor tissue. The present finding is of potential value in macromolecular tumor therapeutics and diagnosis.
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              Understanding and controlling the interaction of nanomaterials with proteins in a physiological environment.

              Nanomaterials hold promise as multifunctional diagnostic and therapeutic agents. However, the effective application of nanomaterials is hampered by limited understanding and control over their interactions with complex biological systems. When a nanomaterial enters a physiological environment, it rapidly adsorbs proteins forming what is known as the protein 'corona'. The protein corona alters the size and interfacial composition of a nanomaterial, giving it a biological identity that is distinct from its synthetic identity. The biological identity determines the physiological response including signalling, kinetics, transport, accumulation, and toxicity. The structure and composition of the protein corona depends on the synthetic identity of the nanomaterial (size, shape, and composition), the nature of the physiological environment (blood, interstitial fluid, cell cytoplasm, etc.), and the duration of exposure. In this critical review, we discuss the formation of the protein corona, its structure and composition, and its influence on the physiological response. We also present an 'adsorbome' of 125 plasma proteins that are known to associate with nanomaterials. We further describe how the protein corona is related to the synthetic identity of a nanomaterial, and highlight efforts to control protein-nanomaterial interactions. We conclude by discussing gaps in the understanding of protein-nanomaterial interactions along with strategies to fill them (167 references).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Nanomedicine
                Int J Nanomedicine
                IJN
                intjnano
                International Journal of Nanomedicine
                Dove
                1176-9114
                1178-2013
                03 March 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 1437-1456
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia , Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
                [2 ]Laboratory of Vaccine and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience Universiti , Putra 43400, Malaysia
                [3 ]Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia , Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
                [4 ]Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia , Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mohd Zobir Hussein Email mzobir@upm.edu.my
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8910-0267
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0695-2136
                Article
                236927
                10.2147/IJN.S236927
                7060777
                32184597
                7b94b98f-6b18-4cbe-92cd-40c773af499a
                © 2020 Ruman et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                History
                : 01 November 2019
                : 18 February 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 9, Tables: 2, References: 132, Pages: 20
                Categories
                Review

                Molecular medicine
                nanocarrier,therapeutics,theranostics,drug delivery systems,liver cancer,nanodrug,modalities

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