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      Spore powder of Ganoderma lucidum for the treatment of Alzheimer disease : A pilot study

      , MM, , MM, , MM, , MD

      Medicine

      Wolters Kluwer Health

      Alzheimer disease, Spore Powder of Ganoderma Lucidum, efficacy

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          Abstract

          Background:

          This study explored the feasible efficacy and safety of the Spore Powder of Ganoderma Lucidum (SPGL) for treating patients with Alzheimer disease (AD).

          Methods:

          Forty-two eligible patients with AD were recruited. These patients were randomly allocated to an intervention group and a control group equally. The patients in the intervention group underwent SPGL, whereas the subjects in the control received placebo. All patients were treated for a total of 6 weeks. The primary outcome was measured by Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-cog). The secondary outcomes were measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) and Neuropsychiatric Index (NPI). The adverse events were also recorded during the treatment period.

          Results:

          At the end of the treatment, GLSP did not show more encouraging outcomes in symptoms improvement, measured by the ADAS-cog ( P = .31), and NPI ( P = .79); and quality of life enhancement, measured by the WHOQOL-BREF (physical, P = .62; psychological, P = .69; social relationships, P = .75; environment, P = .82; overall quality of life, P = .74), compared with the control group. In addition, all adverse events were mild, and no significant differences were found between 2 groups.

          Conclusion:

          The results of this study did not find the promising efficacy of SPGL for the treatment of AD after 6-week treatment. It may be because of the relative short-term of intervention. Future clinical trials with larger sample size and longer treatment period are urgently needed.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer's Disease.

          Clinical criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease include insidious onset and progressive impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. There are no motor, sensory, or coordination deficits early in the disease. The diagnosis cannot be determined by laboratory tests. These tests are important primarily in identifying other possible causes of dementia that must be excluded before the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease may be made with confidence. Neuropsychological tests provide confirmatory evidence of the diagnosis of dementia and help to assess the course and response to therapy. The criteria proposed are intended to serve as a guide for the diagnosis of probable, possible, and definite Alzheimer's disease; these criteria will be revised as more definitive information become available.
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            The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia.

            We developed a new instrument, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), to assess 10 behavioral disturbances occurring in dementia patients: delusions, hallucinations, dysphoria, anxiety, agitation/aggression, euphoria, disinhibition, irritability/lability, apathy, and aberrant motor activity. The NPI uses a screening strategy to minimize administration time, examining and scoring only those behavioral domains with positive responses to screening questions. Both the frequency and the severity of each behavior are determined. Information for the NPI is obtained from a caregiver familiar with the patient's behavior. Studies reported here demonstrate the content and concurrent validity as well as between-rater, test-retest, and internal consistency reliability; the instrument is both valid and reliable. The NPI has the advantages of evaluating a wider range of psychopathology than existing instruments, soliciting information that may distinguish among different etiologies of dementia, differentiating between severity and frequency of behavioral changes, and minimizing administration time.
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              Forecasting the global burden of Alzheimer's disease.

              Our goal was to forecast the global burden of Alzheimer's disease and evaluate the potential impact of interventions that delay disease onset or progression. A stochastic, multistate model was used in conjunction with United Nations worldwide population forecasts and data from epidemiological studies of the risks of Alzheimer's disease. In 2006, the worldwide prevalence of Alzheimer's disease was 26.6 million. By 2050, the prevalence will quadruple, by which time 1 in 85 persons worldwide will be living with the disease. We estimate about 43% of prevalent cases need a high level of care, equivalent to that of a nursing home. If interventions could delay both disease onset and progression by a modest 1 year, there would be nearly 9.2 million fewer cases of the disease in 2050, with nearly the entire decline attributable to decreases in persons needing a high level of care. We face a looming global epidemic of Alzheimer's disease as the world's population ages. Modest advances in therapeutic and preventive strategies that lead to even small delays in the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease can significantly reduce the global burden of this disease.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University, Jiamusi, China.
                Author notes
                []Correspondence: Li-hong Qin, First Ward of Neurology Department, First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University, No. 348 Dexiang Street, Xiangyang District, Jiamusi 154003, China (e-mail: lihongq112@ 123456163.com ).
                Journal
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                MEDI
                Medicine
                Wolters Kluwer Health
                0025-7974
                1536-5964
                May 2018
                11 May 2018
                : 97
                : 19
                MD-D-18-01656 00636
                10.1097/MD.0000000000010636
                5959386
                29742702
                Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

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                Research Article
                Clinical Trial/Experimental Study
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