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      An efficient method to make human monoclonal antibodies from memory B cells: potent neutralization of SARS coronavirus

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          Passive serotherapy can confer immediate protection against microbial infection, but methods to rapidly generate human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies are not yet available. We have developed an improved method for Epstein-Barr virus transformation of human B cells. We used this method to analyze the memory repertoire of a patient who recovered from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection and to isolate monoclonal antibodies specific for different viral proteins, including 35 antibodies with in vitro neutralizing activity ranging from 10 −8M to 10 −11M. One such antibody confers protection in vivo in a mouse model of SARS-CoV infection. These results show that it is possible to interrogate the memory repertoire of immune donors to rapidly and efficiently isolate neutralizing antibodies that have been selected in the course of natural infection.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Canada.

          Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a condition of unknown cause that has recently been recognized in patients in Asia, North America, and Europe. This report summarizes the initial epidemiologic findings, clinical description, and diagnostic findings that followed the identification of SARS in Canada. SARS was first identified in Canada in early March 2003. We collected epidemiologic, clinical, and diagnostic data from each of the first 10 cases prospectively as they were identified. Specimens from all cases were sent to local, provincial, national, and international laboratories for studies to identify an etiologic agent. The patients ranged from 24 to 78 years old; 60 percent were men. Transmission occurred only after close contact. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (in 100 percent of cases) and malaise (in 70 percent), followed by nonproductive cough (in 100 percent) and dyspnea (in 80 percent) associated with infiltrates on chest radiography (in 100 percent). Lymphopenia (in 89 percent of those for whom data were available), elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels (in 80 percent), elevated aspartate aminotransferase levels (in 78 percent), and elevated creatinine kinase levels (in 56 percent) were common. Empirical therapy most commonly included antibiotics, oseltamivir, and intravenous ribavirin. Mechanical ventilation was required in five patients. Three patients died, and five have had clinical improvement. The results of laboratory investigations were negative or not clinically significant except for the amplification of human metapneumovirus from respiratory specimens from five of nine patients and the isolation and amplification of a novel coronavirus from five of nine patients. In four cases both pathogens were isolated. SARS is a condition associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. It appears to be of viral origin, with patterns suggesting droplet or contact transmission. The role of human metapneumovirus, a novel coronavirus, or both requires further investigation. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Epidemiological determinants of spread of causal agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong

            Summary Background Health authorities worldwide, especially in the Asia Pacific region, are seeking effective public-health interventions in the continuing epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). We assessed the epidemiology of SARS in Hong Kong. Methods We included 1425 cases reported up to April 28, 2003. An integrated database was constructed from several sources containing information on epidemiological, demographic, and clinical variables. We estimated the key epidemiological distributions: infection to onset, onset to admission, admission to death, and admission to discharge. We measured associations between the estimated case fatality rate and patients’age and the time from onset to admission. Findings After the initial phase of exponential growth, the rate of confirmed cases fell to less than 20 per day by April 28. Public-health interventions included encouragement to report to hospital rapidly after the onset of clinical symptoms, contact tracing for confirmed and suspected cases, and quarantining, monitoring, and restricting the travel of contacts. The mean incubation period of the disease is estimated to be 6.4 days (95% Cl 5.2–7.7). The mean time from onset of clinical symptoms to admission to hospital varied between 3 and 5 days, with longer times earlier in the epidemic. The estimated case fatality rate was 13.2% (9.8–16.8) for patients younger than 60 years and 43.3% (35.2–52.4) for patients aged 60 years or older assuming a parametric γ distribution. A non-parametric method yielded estimates of 6.8% (4.0–9.6) and 55.0% (45.3–64.7), respectively. Case clusters have played an important part in the course of the epidemic. Interpretation Patients’age was strongly associated with outcome. The time between onset of symptoms and admission to hospital did not alter outcome, but shorter intervals will be important to the wider population by restricting the infectious period before patients are placed in quarantine. Published online May 7, 2003
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              Beitrag zur kollektiven Behandlung pharmakologischer Reihenversuche

               G. Kärber (1931)

                Author and article information

                Nat Med
                Nat. Med
                Nature Medicine
                Nature Publishing Group US (New York )
                11 July 2004
                : 10
                : 8
                : 871-875
                [1 ]GRID grid.29078.34, ISNI 0000 0001 2203 2861, Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Via Vela 6, ; Belllinzona, CH 6500 Switzerland
                [2 ]GRID grid.14095.39, ISNI 0000 0000 9116 4836, Institut für Virologie, ; Robert-Koch-Str. 17, Marburg, D-35037 Germany
                [3 ]GRID grid.419681.3, ISNI 0000 0001 2164 9667, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, NIAID/NIH, ; 50 South Drive, Bethesda, 20892-8007 Maryland USA
                [4 ]Chiron Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, Siena, I-53100 Italy
                [5 ]GRID grid.144767.7, ISNI 0000 0004 4682 2907, Istituto di Microbiologia, Ospedale Luigi Sacco, Via Grassi 74, ; Milano, I-20175 Italy
                © Nature Publishing Group 2004

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

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