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      Extracorporeal cytokine elimination as rescue therapy in refractory septic shock: a prospective single-center study

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          Most cited references 31

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          Early lactate clearance is associated with improved outcome in severe sepsis and septic shock.

          Serial lactate concentrations can be used to examine disease severity in the intensive care unit. This study examines the clinical utility of the lactate clearance before intensive care unit admission (during the most proximal period of disease presentation) as an indicator of outcome in severe sepsis and septic shock. We hypothesize that a high lactate clearance in 6 hrs is associated with decreased mortality rate. Prospective observational study. An urban emergency department and intensive care unit over a 1-yr period. A convenience cohort of patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Therapy was initiated in the emergency department and continued in the intensive care unit, including central venous and arterial catheterization, antibiotics, fluid resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, and inotropes when appropriate. Vital signs, laboratory values, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score were obtained at hour 0 (emergency department presentation), hour 6, and over the first 72 hrs of hospitalization. Therapy given in the emergency department and intensive care unit was recorded. Lactate clearance was defined as the percent decrease in lactate from emergency department presentation to hour 6. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine independent variables associated with mortality. One hundred and eleven patients were enrolled with mean age 64.9 +/- 16.7 yrs, emergency department length of stay 6.3 +/- 3.2 hrs, and overall in-hospital mortality rate 42.3%. Baseline APACHE II score was 20.2 +/- 6.8 and lactate 6.9 +/- 4.6 mmol/L. Survivors compared with nonsurvivors had a lactate clearance of 38.1 +/- 34.6 vs. 12.0 +/- 51.6%, respectively (p =.005). Multivariate logistic regression analysis of statistically significant univariate variables showed lactate clearance to have a significant inverse relationship with mortality (p =.04). There was an approximately 11% decrease likelihood of mortality for each 10% increase in lactate clearance. Patients with a lactate clearance> or =10%, relative to patients with a lactate clearance <10%, had a greater decrease in APACHE II score over the 72-hr study period and a lower 60-day mortality rate (p =.007). Lactate clearance early in the hospital course may indicate a resolution of global tissue hypoxia and is associated with decreased mortality rate. Patients with higher lactate clearance after 6 hrs of emergency department intervention have improved outcome compared with those with lower lactate clearance.
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            Nationwide trends of severe sepsis in the 21st century (2000-2007).

            Severe sepsis is common and often fatal. The expanding armamentarium of evidence-based therapies has improved the outcomes of persons with this disease. However, the existing national estimates of the frequency and outcomes of severe sepsis were made before many of the recent therapeutic advances. Therefore, it is important to study the outcomes of this disease in an aging US population with rising comorbidities. We used the Healthcare Costs and Utilization Project's Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to estimate the frequency and outcomes of severe sepsis hospitalizations between 2000 and 2007. We identified hospitalizations for severe sepsis using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes indicating the presence of sepsis and organ system failure. Using weights from NIS, we estimated the number of hospitalizations for severe sepsis in each year. We combined these with census data to determine the number of severe sepsis hospitalizations per 100,000 persons. We used discharge status to identify in-hospital mortality and compared mortality rates in 2000 with those in 2007 after adjusting for demographics, number of organ systems failing, and presence of comorbid conditions. The number of severe sepsis hospitalizations per 100,000 persons increased from 143 in 2000 to 343 in 2007. The mean number of organ system failures during admission increased from 1.6 to 1.9 (P < .001). The mean length of hospital stay decreased from 17.3 to 14.9 days. The mortality rate decreased from 39% to 27%. However, more admissions ended with discharge to a long-term care facility in 2007 than in 2000 (35% vs 27%, P < .001). An increasing number of admissions for severe sepsis combined with declining mortality rates contribute to more individuals surviving to hospital discharge. Importantly, this leads to more survivors being discharged to skilled nursing facilities and home with in-home care. Increased attention to this phenomenon is warranted.
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              Epidemiology of sepsis in Germany: results from a national prospective multicenter study.

              To determine the prevalence and mortality of ICU patients with severe sepsis in Germany, with consideration of hospital size. Prospective, observational, cross-sectional 1-day point-prevalence study. 454 ICUs from a representative nationwide sample of 310 hospitals stratified by size. Data were collected via 1-day on-site audits by trained external study physicians. Visits were randomly distributed over 1 year (2003). Inflammatory response of all ICU patients was assessed using the ACCP/SCCM consensus conference criteria. Patients with severe sepsis were followed up after 3 months for hospital mortality and length of ICU stay. Main outcome measures were prevalence and mortality. A total of 3,877 patients were screened. Prevalence was 12.4% (95% CI, 10.9-13.8%) for sepsis and 11.0% (95% CI, 9.7-12.2%) for severe sepsis including septic shock. The ICU and hospital mortality of patients with severe sepsis was 48.4 and 55.2%, respectively, without significant differences between hospital size. Prevalence and mean length of ICU stay of patients with severe sepsis were significantly higher in larger hospitals and universities (
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Artificial Organs
                J Artif Organs
                Springer Nature
                1434-7229
                1619-0904
                September 2017
                June 6 2017
                : 20
                : 3
                : 252-259
                Article
                10.1007/s10047-017-0967-4
                © 2017

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