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      Comparative study of antiretroviral drug regimens and drug–drug interactions between younger and older HIV-infected patients at a tertiary care teaching hospital in South Korea

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          With the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV have lived to older age. So they have experienced age-related illnesses and have taken non-antiretroviral (ARV) medications to manage these illnesses. The aims of this study were to investigate the use patterns of ARV agents in HIV-positive patients by age and to evaluate potential or contraindicated drug–drug interactions (DDIs) between ARV and non-ARV.


          This study was retrospectively conducted with HIV-infected patients receiving ART medications between October 2011 and September 2017 at Chonbuk National University Hospital in South Korea. Data were collected by reviewing patients’ electronic medical charts.


          Among 207 patients diagnosed with HIV infection, 183 (86.9% males; 104 aged <50 years and 79 aged ≥50 years) were selected based on inclusion criteria. In 2017, the most frequently prescribed ART regimen was nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)/integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs; total, 66.3%; <50 years, 36.3%; ≥50 years, 30.0%) followed by NRTIs/protease inhibitors (PIs; total, 23.8%; <50 years, 15.0%; ≥50 years, 8.8%). In 2017, the most frequently prescribed NRTI combination was abacavir/lamivudine (total, 34.4%; <50 years, 20.6%; ≥50 years, 13.8%) followed by tenofovir alafenamide/emtricitabine (FTC; total, 31.3%; <50 years, 16.3%; ≥50 years, 15.0%) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/FTC (total, 28.1%; <50 years, 16.9%; ≥50 years, 11.3%). In 2017, elvitegravir (EVG)/cobicistat (COBI; total, 57.1%; <50 years, 30.4%; ≥50 years, 26.8%) was most frequently prescribed followed by dolutegravir (total, 32.1%; <50 years, 19.6%; ≥50 years, 12.5%). Potential or contraindicated DDIs between boosted PIs with ritonavir or EVG/COBI and coprescribed drugs occurred most frequently.


          Currently, NRTIs/INSTIs is the most frequently prescribed ARV combination. Abacavir/lamivudine, tenofovir alafenamide/FTC, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/FTC are the most used NRTIs, and EVG/COBI followed by dolutegravir is the most prescribed INSTIs. Potential or contraindicated DDIs occur mainly between boosted PIs or EVG/COBI and non-ARV medications.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and efavirenz versus fixed-dose zidovudine/lamivudine and efavirenz in antiretroviral-naive patients: virologic, immunologic, and morphologic changes--a 96-week analysis.

          In antiretroviral-naive patients, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), emtricitabine (FTC), and efavirenz (EFV) demonstrated superior outcomes compared with fixed-dose zidovudine (ZDV)/lamivudine (3TC) and EFV through 48 weeks. Results through a 96-week extension phase are presented. In this randomized, open-label, noninferiority trial, 517 antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients received TDF, FTC, and EFV (TDF + FTC + EFV) or ZDV/3TC and EFV (ZDV/3TC + EFV). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL in patients without baseline nonnucleoside resistance. Through week 96, significantly more patients receiving TDF + FTC + EFV achieved and maintained an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL (75% receiving TDF + FTC + EFV vs. 62% receiving ZDV/3TC + EFV; P = 0.004). There was a trend toward greater virologic suppression to <50 copies/mL in the TDF + FTC + EFV group (67% vs. 61%; P = 0.16). The TDF + FTC + EFV group demonstrated a significantly greater increase in CD4 count (270 vs. 237 cells/mm; P = 0.036). No patient developed the K65R mutation. Limb fat at week 96 was significantly greater in the TDF + FTC + EFV group versus the ZDV/3TC + EFV group (7.7 vs. 5.5 kg; P < 0.001). Over 96 weeks, the combination of TDF, FTC, and EFV was superior to fixed-dose ZDV/3TC + EFV for achieving and maintaining an HIV RNA level <400 copies/mL and an increase in CD4 cells.
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            Aging, antiretrovirals, and adherence: a meta analysis of adherence among older HIV-infected individuals.

            Older adults are generally considered to be at greater risk for medication non-adherence due to factors such as medication complexity, side effects, cost, and cognitive decline. However, this generalization may not apply to older adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Regardless of age, suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) can lead to increased viral load, immunosuppression, drug-resistant viral strains, co-morbidities, and opportunistic infections. Understanding trends of adherence to ART among older adults is critical, especially as the population of people living with HIV grows older. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine if older individuals with HIV are less likely to be non-adherent to antiretroviral therapy than younger individuals with HIV. A systematic search in PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles evaluating adherence to ART in older adults. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts, applied inclusion criteria, and appraised study quality. The bibliographies of qualifying studies were searched. Data were abstracted from studies by two independent authors. Meta-analyses were conducted, and adherence levels were reported as the relative risk of non-adherence in older individuals compared to younger individuals. The systematic search yielded 1,848 abstracts. Twelve studies met full inclusion criteria. The overall meta-analysis found that older age reduced risk for nonadherence by 27 % (relative risk (RR) 0.72, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.64–0.82). Studies assessing both short-term and long-term adherence demonstrated a significant reduction in non-adherence among older patients (RR 0.75, 95 % CI 0.64–0.87 and RR 0.65, 95 % CI 0.50–0.85, respectively). Older adults with HIV have a reduced risk for non-adherence to ART than their younger counterparts. Future studies should seek to elucidate contributing factors of adherence among older individuals with HIV.
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              Polypharmacy and risk of antiretroviral drug interactions among the aging HIV-infected population.

              Among aging HIV-infected adults, polypharmacy and its consequences have not been well-described.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                12 November 2018
                : 14
                : 2229-2241
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacy, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, South Korea
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju, South Korea, ejchoi@ 123456chosun.ac.kr
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Eun Joo Choi, Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, 309 Pilmun-daero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61452, South Korea, Tel +82 62 230 6382, Fax +82 62 222 5414, Email ejchoi@ 123456chosun.ac.kr

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2018 Park et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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