Determining the possible association of viral hepatitis infection and degree of pruritus is the primary concern of this study. Ninety-six adequately dialyzed CAPD patients (47 male and 49 female) and 526 normal controls (266 male and 260 female) were enrolled. Blood hemoglobin, ferritin, electrolytes, calcium, phosphate, albumin, urea, creatinine, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin were analyzed by routine methods. Serum HBsAg was examined, using a radioimmunoassay method and the anti-HCV, an enzyme immunoassay method. All cases were interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. The highest possible pruritus score (PS) was 22. The prevalences of HBsAg(+) and anti-HCV(+) were 14.6% and 17.7%, respectively. The mean PS in all 96 CAPD patients was 11.6 (range 7–22). The mean PS were 11.8 ± 0.6 and 12.5 ± 1.0 for patients infected with HBV and HCV, respectively. Both were significantly higher than that (10 ± 0.9) of patients without hepatitis infection. AST and ALT were significantly higher in patients infected with viral hepatitis than those without. The other biochemical parameters were not significant. Thirty-seven (38.5%) of our 96 patients had mild pruritus (PS 7) and 11 (15.9%) had severe pruritus (PS ≧15). Of the 83.9% (26/31) patients with viral hepatitis, the grades of skin itching were moderate to severe; whereas those of the patients without viral hepatitis, 53.6% (37/69) belonged to the group of moderate to severe pruritus (p = 0.003, χ<sup>2</sup> test with Yates’ correction). The authors recommended screening of viral hepatitis infection to be undertaken for uremic patients with unexplained skin itching.