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Quantum-Limited Amplification via Reservoir Engineering

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Physical Review Letters

American Physical Society (APS)

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      Superconducting quantum bits.

      Superconducting circuits are macroscopic in size but have generic quantum properties such as quantized energy levels, superposition of states, and entanglement, all of which are more commonly associated with atoms. Superconducting quantum bits (qubits) form the key component of these circuits. Their quantum state is manipulated by using electromagnetic pulses to control the magnetic flux, the electric charge or the phase difference across a Josephson junction (a device with nonlinear inductance and no energy dissipation). As such, superconducting qubits are not only of considerable fundamental interest but also might ultimately form the primitive building blocks of quantum computers.
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        Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator.

        Quantum mechanics provides a highly accurate description of a wide variety of physical systems. However, a demonstration that quantum mechanics applies equally to macroscopic mechanical systems has been a long-standing challenge, hindered by the difficulty of cooling a mechanical mode to its quantum ground state. The temperatures required are typically far below those attainable with standard cryogenic methods, so significant effort has been devoted to developing alternative cooling techniques. Once in the ground state, quantum-limited measurements must then be demonstrated. Here, using conventional cryogenic refrigeration, we show that we can cool a mechanical mode to its quantum ground state by using a microwave-frequency mechanical oscillator-a 'quantum drum'-coupled to a quantum bit, which is used to measure the quantum state of the resonator. We further show that we can controllably create single quantum excitations (phonons) in the resonator, thus taking the first steps to complete quantum control of a mechanical system.
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          Superconducting circuits for quantum information: an outlook.

          The performance of superconducting qubits has improved by several orders of magnitude in the past decade. These circuits benefit from the robustness of superconductivity and the Josephson effect, and at present they have not encountered any hard physical limits. However, building an error-corrected information processor with many such qubits will require solving specific architecture problems that constitute a new field of research. For the first time, physicists will have to master quantum error correction to design and operate complex active systems that are dissipative in nature, yet remain coherent indefinitely. We offer a view on some directions for the field and speculate on its future.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            PRLTAO
            Physical Review Letters
            Phys. Rev. Lett.
            American Physical Society (APS)
            0031-9007
            1079-7114
            April 2014
            April 4 2014
            : 112
            : 13
            10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.133904
            © 2014

            http://link.aps.org/licenses/aps-default-license

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