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      Cardiac and Vascular Synergic Protective Effect of Olea europea L. Leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Flower Extracts

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          Abstract

          This study was aimed at investigating the cardiovascular effects of an Olea europea L. leaf extract (OEE), of a Hibiscus sabdariffa L. flower extract (HSE), and of their 13 : 2 w/w mixture in order to assess their cardiac and vascular activity. Both extracts were fully characterized in their bioactive compounds by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The study was performed using primary vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effect of the extracts and their mixture and isolated guinea-pig left and right atria and aorta to evaluate the inotropic and chronotropic activities and vasorelaxant properties. In cultured HUVECs, OEE and HSE reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability, following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. OEE and HSE exerted negative inotropic and vasorelaxant effects without any chronotropic property. Interestingly, the mixture exerted higher cytoprotective effects and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the mixture exerted an inotropic effect similar to each single extract, while it revealed an intrinsic negative chronotropic activity different from the single extract; its relaxant activity was higher than that of each single extract. In conclusion OEE and HSE mixture has a good potential for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical application, thanks to the synergistic effects of the single phytochemicals.

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          Hibiscus sabdariffa L. - a phytochemical and pharmacological review.

          Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Hs, roselle; Malvaceae) has been used traditionally as a food, in herbal drinks, in hot and cold beverages, as a flavouring agent in the food industry and as a herbal medicine. In vitro and in vivo studies as well as some clinical trials provide some evidence mostly for phytochemically poorly characterised Hs extracts. Extracts showed antibacterial, anti-oxidant, nephro- and hepato-protective, renal/diuretic effect, effects on lipid metabolism (anti-cholesterol), anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive effects among others. This might be linked to strong antioxidant activities, inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE), and direct vaso-relaxant effect or calcium channel modulation. Phenolic acids (esp. protocatechuic acid), organic acid (hydroxycitric acid and hibiscus acid) and anthocyanins (delphinidin-3-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside) are likely to contribute to the reported effects. More well designed controlled clinical trials are needed which use phytochemically characterised preparations. Hs has an excellent safety and tolerability record.
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            Oxidative stress and hypertension: Possibility of hypertension therapy with antioxidants

            Hypertension is a major risk factor for myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, and aortic aneurysm, and is a cause of chronic kidney disease. Hypertension is often associated with metabolic abnormalities such as diabetes and dyslipidemia, and the rate of these diseases is increasing nowadays. Recently it has been hypothesized that oxidative stress is a key player in the pathogenesis of hypertension. A reduction in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity has been observed in newly diagnosed and untreated hypertensive subjects, which are inversely correlated with blood pressure. Hydrogen peroxide production is also higher in hypertensive subjects. Furthermore, hypertensive patients have higher lipid hydroperoxide production. Oxidative stress is also markedly increased in hypertensive patients with renovascular disease. If oxidative stress is indeed a cause of hypertension, then, antioxidants should have beneficial effects on hypertension control and reduction of oxidative damage should result in a reduction in blood pressure. Although dietary antioxidants may have beneficial effects on hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors, however, antioxidant supplementation has not been shown consistently to be effective and improvement is not usually seen in blood pressure after treatment with single or combination antioxidant therapy in subjects thought to be at high risk of cardiovascular disease. This matter is the main focus of this paper. A list of medicinal plants that have been reported to be effective in hypertension is also presented.
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              Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect of oleuropein in alloxan-diabetic rabbits.

              Patients with diabetes mellitus are likely to develop certain complication such as retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy as a result of oxidative stress and overwhelming free radicals. Treatment of diabetic patients with antioxidant may be of advantage in attenuating these complications. Oleuropein, the active constituent of olive leaf (Olea europaea), has been endowed with many beneficial and health promoting properties mostly linked to its antioxidant activity. This study aimed to evaluate the significance of supplementation of oleuropein in reducing oxidative stress and hyperglycemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. After induction of diabetes, a significant rise in plasma and erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) and blood glucose as well as alteration in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants was observed in all diabetic animals. During 16 weeks of treatment of diabetic rabbits with 20 mg/kg body weight of oleuropein the levels of MDA along with blood glucose and most of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were significantly restored to establish values that were not different from normal control rabbits. Untreated diabetic rabbits on the other hand demonstrated persistent alterations in the oxidative stress marker MDA, blood glucose and the antioxidant parameters. These results demonstrate that oleuropein may be of advantage in inhibiting hyperglycemia and oxidative stress induced by diabetes and suggest that administration of oleuropein may be helpful in the prevention of diabetic complications associated with oxidative stress.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                Oxid Med Cell Longev
                OMCL
                Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                1942-0900
                1942-0994
                2015
                9 June 2015
                : 2015
                : 318125
                Affiliations
                1Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Via Belmeloro 6, 40126 Bologna, Italy
                2Department for Life Quality Studies, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Corso d'Augusto 237, 47900 Rimini, Italy
                3Department of Food Science, University of Bologna, Via Fanin 44, 40100 Bologna, Italy
                4Department of Specialistic, Diagnostic and Experimental Medicine, Section of Nephrology, University of Bologna, S. Orsola Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: David Vauzour

                Article
                10.1155/2015/318125
                4477181
                7be6d2bc-5402-44cb-93b9-d54f830e038a
                Copyright © 2015 Matteo Micucci et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 23 September 2014
                : 11 December 2014
                : 12 December 2014
                Categories
                Research Article

                Molecular medicine
                Molecular medicine

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