A nationwide statistical survey of 4226 dialysis facilities was conducted at the end of 2010, and 4166 facilities (98.6%) responded. The number of new patients introduced into dialysis was 37,512 in 2010. This number has decreased for two consecutive years since it peaked in 2008. The number of patients who died in 2010 was 28,882, which has been increasing every year. The number of patients undergoing dialysis at the end of 2010 was 298,252, which is an increase of 7591 (2.6%) compared with that at the end of 2009. The number of dialysis patients per million at the end of 2010 was 2329.1. The crude death rate of dialysis patients in 2010 was 9.8%, and has been gradually increasing. The mean age of the new patients introduced into dialysis was 67.8 years and the mean age of the entire dialysis patient population was 66.2 years. Regarding the primary disease of the new patients introduced into dialysis, the percentage of patients with diabetic nephropathy was 43.6%, which is a slight decrease from that in the previous year (44.5%). Patients with diabetic nephropathy as the primary disease accounted for 35.9% of the entire dialysis patient population, which approaches the percentage of patients with chronic glomerulonephritis as the primary disease (36.2%). The percentage of patients who had undergone carpal tunnel release surgery (CTx) was 4.3%, which is a slight decrease from that at the end of 1999 (5.5%). The decrease in the percentage of patients who had undergone CTx was significant among the patients with dialysis durations of 20-24 years (1999, 48.0%; 2010, 23.2%). A total weekly Kt/V attributable to peritoneal dialysis and their residual functional kidney was 1.7 or higher for 59.4% of patients who underwent peritoneal dialysis. © 2012 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2012 International Society for Apheresis.