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      Relationship between self-reported pain sensitivity and pain after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective study of 71 patients 8 weeks after a standardized fast-track program

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          Background and purpose

          This was a prospective cohort study assessing data from 71 adult patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) following a standardized fast-track program between January and July 2013. The objective was to examine the relationship between self-rated pain sensitivity, as measured by the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ), and postoperative pain after TKA.


          The baseline questionnaires, PSQ and Brief Pain Inventory, were given to the patients for self-administration at the presurgical evaluation (1–2 weeks prior to surgery). The follow-up questionnaire, Brief Pain Inventory, was administered at the first follow-up, 8 weeks after surgery.


          A statistically significant association was found between average preoperative pain and average pain 8 weeks after surgery ( P=0.001). The PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with average pain only for patients younger than 70 years ( P=0.03).


          This is the first study to examine the relationship between pain sensitivity measured by PSQ and postoperative pain in patients after TKA. We found that a lower score on the PSQ-minor was statistically significantly associated with patients’ pain 8 weeks after TKA surgery, but only for younger patients. Further research is needed to explore whether the PSQ could be a useful screening tool for patients’ pain sensitivity in clinical settings.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Development of the Wisconsin Brief Pain Questionnaire to assess pain in cancer and other diseases.

          This paper reports the development of a self-report instrument designed to assess pain in cancer and other diseases. It is argued that issues of reliability and validity should be considered for every pain questionnaire. Most research on measures of pain examine reliability to the relative neglect of validity concerns. The Wisconsin Brief Pain Questionnaire (BPQ) is evaluated with regard to both reliability and validity. Data from patients with cancer at 4 primary sites and from patients with rheumatoid arthritis suggest that the BPQ is sufficiently reliable and valid for research purposes. Additional methodological and theoretical issues related to validity are discussed, and the need for continuing evaluation of the BPQ and other measures of clinical pain is stressed.
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            Predictors of postoperative pain and analgesic consumption: a qualitative systematic review.

            Pain is a subjective and multidimensional experience that is often inadequately managed in clinical practice. Effective control of postoperative pain is important after anesthesia and surgery. A systematic review was conducted to identify the independent predictive factors for postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. The authors identified 48 eligible studies with 23,037 patients included in the final analysis. Preoperative pain, anxiety, age, and type of surgery were four significant predictors for postoperative pain. Type of surgery, age, and psychological distress were the significant predictors for analgesic consumption. Gender was not found to be a consistent predictor as traditionally believed. Early identification of the predictors in patients at risk of postoperative pain will allow more effective intervention and better management. The coefficient of determination of the predictive models was less than 54%. More vigorous studies with robust statistics and validated designs are needed to investigate this field of interest.
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              The role of pain and function in determining patient satisfaction after total knee replacement. Data from the National Joint Registry for England and Wales.

              A postal questionnaire was sent to 10,000 patients more than one year after their total knee replacement (TKR). They were assessed using the Oxford knee score and were asked whether they were satisfied, unsure or unsatisfied with their TKR. The response rate was 87.4% (8231 of 9417 eligible questionnaires) and a total of 81.8% (6625 of 8095) of patients were satisfied. Multivariable regression modelling showed that patients with higher scores relating to the pain and function elements of the Oxford knee score had a lower level of satisfaction (p < 0.001), and that ongoing pain was a stronger predictor of this. Female gender and a primary diagnosis of osteoarthritis were found to be predictors of lower levels of patient satisfaction. Differences in the rate of satisfaction were also observed in relation to age, the American Society of Anesthesiologists grade and the type of prosthesis. This study has provided data on the Oxford knee score and the expected levels of satisfaction at one year after TKR. The results should act as a benchmark of practice in the United Kingdom and provide a baseline for peer comparison between institutions.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                08 September 2016
                : 9
                : 625-629
                [1 ]Faculty of Nursing, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo
                [2 ]Clinic of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital
                [3 ]Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery
                [4 ]Department of Cardiology
                [5 ]National Competence Centre for Complex Symptom Disorders, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital
                [6 ]Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Berit T Valeberg, Faculty of Nursing, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Postboks 4, St. Olavs plass, 0130 Oslo, Norway, Tel +47 9972 6919, Email berit.valeberg@ 123456hioa.no
                © 2016 Valeberg et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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