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Thoratec CentriMag for Temporary Treatment of Refractory Cardiogenic Shock or Severe Cardiopulmonary Insufficiency: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

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      Abstract

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      Abstract

      The aim of the study was to systematically evaluate effect of CentriMag heart pump (Thoratec Corporation) as temporary ventricular assist device (VAD) and part of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) system on outcomes in patients with cardiac or cardiac-respiratory failure. A systematic search was conducted in five databases for the period 2003 to 2012. Fifty-three publications with data for 999 patients, supported with CentriMag, were included. In 72% studies, CentriMag was used as a VAD and in 25% as part of ECMO circuit. Mean duration of VAD support was 25.0 days in precardiotomy group, 10.9 days in postcardiac surgery cardiogenic shock group, 8.8 days in post-transplant graft failure and rejection group, and 16.0 days in post-LVAD placement right ventricular failure group. Survival on support was 82% (95% CI 70–92) for VAD support in precardiotomy cardiogenic shock indication, 63% (95% CI 46–78) in VAD support in postcardiac surgery cardiogenic shock indication, 62% (95% CI 46–76) in VAD support in post-transplant graft rejection or failure indication, and 83% (95% CI 73–92) in VAD support in post-LVAD placement right ventricular failure indication. CentriMag is an effective technology for temporary support of patients with cardiac and cardiorespiratory failure.

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      Thirty-year trends (1975 to 2005) in the magnitude of, management of, and hospital death rates associated with cardiogenic shock in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a population-based perspective.

      Limited information is available about potentially changing and contemporary trends in the incidence and hospital death rates of cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. The objectives of our study were to examine 3-decade-long trends (1975 to 2005) in the incidence rates of cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction, patient characteristics and treatment practices associated with this clinical complication, and hospital death rates in residents of a large central New England community hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction at all area medical centers. The study population consisted of 13 663 residents of the Worcester (Mass) metropolitan area hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction at all greater Worcester medical centers during 15 annual periods between 1975 and 2005. Overall, 6.6% of patients developed cardiogenic shock during their index hospitalization. The incidence rates of cardiogenic shock remained stable between 1975 and the late 1990s but declined in an inconsistent manner thereafter. Patients in whom cardiogenic shock developed had a significantly greater risk of dying during hospitalization (65.4%) than those who did not develop cardiogenic shock (10.6%) (P<0.001). Encouraging increases in hospital survival in patients with cardiogenic shock, however, were observed from the mid-1990s to our most recent study years. Several patient demographic and clinical characteristics were associated with an increased risk for developing cardiogenic shock. Our findings indicate improving trends in the hospital prognosis associated with cardiogenic shock. Given the high death rates associated with this clinical complication, monitoring future trends in the incidence and death rates and the factors associated with an increased risk for developing cardiogenic shock remains warranted.
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        Clinical performance with the Levitronix Centrimag short-term ventricular assist device.

        The Levitronix ventricular assist device (VAD) is a centrifugal pump designed for extracorporeal support and that operates without mechanical bearings or seals. The rotor is magnetically levitated so that rotation is achieved without friction or wear, which seems to minimize blood trauma and mechanical failure. The aim of this study is to report our early results with the Levitronix Centrimag device. Between June 2003 and April 2005, 18 patients (pts) were supported using the Levitronix at our institution. Fourteen were male. Mean age was 40.3 +/- 18.3 (range 8 to 64) years. Indications for support at implantation were: post-cardiotomy cardiogenic shock in 12 cases (Group A), and bridge to decision regarding long-term ventricular support in 6 cases (Group B). Mean support time was 14.2 +/- 15.2 days for all patients (range 1 to 64 days). Operative (30-day) mortality was 50% (9 pts). Six pts were in Group A and 3 pts were in Group B. Overall, 6 pts (33%) were discharged home and are presently alive and well (mean follow-up 13 months, range 5 to 17 months). Bleeding requiring re-operation occurred in 8 cases (44%), cerebral thromboembolism in 1 and pulmonary embolism in 1. There were no device failures. The Levitronix functioned well and proved to be useful in patients with extremely poor prognosis previously considered non-suitable for a long-term assist device. The device was technically easy to implant and manage. There was no device dysfunction and complications were acceptable or consistent with other devices. Survival to explant or a definitive procedure (VAD or transplantation) was encouraging.
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          Ambulatory veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: innovation and pitfalls.

          End-stage lung disease and severe acute lung injury are complex entities that remain challenges to manage. Therapies include early institution of mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure, permissive hypercapnia, pulmonary vasodilators, and complex fluid regimens. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is an available treatment option for these patients but, in its conventional form, can be associated with significant complications. We present our early experience with an attempt to optimize extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, emphasizing reduced adjunctive mechanical ventilatory support and aggressive rehabilitation, with a goal of ambulation. This strategy has been enabled by the introduction of a dual-lumen draw and return cannula placed via the internal jugular vein. The first 10 patients (mean age of 45.3 years, 8 male) treated with this strategy between January 1, 2009, and October 1, 2009, were retrospectively reviewed. The ambulatory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation strategy was initiated with an aim of minimal mechanical ventilation and aggressive rehabilitation. The patients were intended to be weaned from all respiratory support or bridged to transplantation. The mean duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was 20 (9-59) days, with average mean blood flows of 3.5 (1.6-4.9) L/min, and levels of CO(2) removal and O(2) transfer of 228 (54-570) mL/min and 127 (36-529) mL/min, respectively. Six of 10 patients were weaned from respiratory support (N = 4) or underwent transplantation (N = 2) and survived to discharge from the hospital. The remaining 4 patients died of sepsis (N = 3) and withdrawal of care after renal failure (N = 1). Four of the 6 surviving patients were extubated and ambulatory while still on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. During that time, 3 of the 4 patients exercised at the bedside, with the remaining patient able to undergo full cardiopulmonary rehabilitation, including treadmill walking. Improvements in the durability of membrane blood oxygenators and pumps have prompted renewed consideration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in patients with severe lung disease. This report describes an attempt to augment extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with the goal of ambulation by minimizing mechanical ventilatory support and using aggressive in-and-out-of-bed rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            From the [* ]Synergus AB, Danderyd, Sweden; []Scottish Extracorporeal Life Support Service, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow, United Kingdom; []Scottish National Advanced Heart Failure Service, Golden Jubilee National Hospital, Clydebank, United Kingdom; [§ ]Medical Management Centre, Department of Learning Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; []Paediatric and Neonatal ECMO Service, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom; []Department of Cardiothoracic Transplant, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester, United Kingdom; and [# ]Emeritus Cardiothoracic Surgeon, Glenfield General Hospital, Leicester, United Kingdom.
            Author notes
            Correspondence: Oleg Borisenko, MD, PhD, Synergus AB, Svardvagen 19, 18233, Danderyd, Stockholm, Sweden. Email: oleg.borisenko@ 123456synergus.com
            Journal
            ASAIO J
            ASAIO J
            MAT
            Asaio Journal
            Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
            1058-2916
            1538-943X
            September 2014
            28 August 2014
            : 60
            : 5
            : 487-497
            25010916
            4154791
            00001
            10.1097/MAT.0000000000000117
            Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

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