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      Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Effector HopAU1 Interacts with Calcium-Sensing Receptor to Activate Plant Immunity

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      International Journal of Molecular Sciences
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Kiwifruit canker, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), is a destructive pathogen that globally threatens the kiwifruit industry. Understanding the molecular mechanism of plant-pathogen interaction can accelerate applying resistance breeding and controlling plant diseases. All known effectors secreted by pathogens play an important role in plant-pathogen interaction. However, the effectors in Psa and their function mechanism remain largely unclear. Here, we successfully identified a T3SS effector HopAU1 which had no virulence contribution to Psa, but could, however, induce cell death and activate a series of immune responses by agroinfiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana, including elevated transcripts of immune-related genes, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and callose deposition. We found that HopAU1 interacted with a calcium sensing receptor in N. benthamiana (NbCaS) as well as its close homologue in kiwifruit (AcCaS). More importantly, silencing CaS by RNAi in N. benthamiana greatly attenuated HopAU1-triggered cell death, suggesting CaS is a crucial component for HopAU1 detection. Further researches showed that overexpression of NbCaS in N. benthamiana significantly enhanced plant resistance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Phytophthora capsici, indicating that CaS serves as a promising resistance-related gene for disease resistance breeding. We concluded that HopAU1 is an immune elicitor that targets CaS to trigger plant immunity.

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          Most cited references64

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          Analyzing real-time PCR data by the comparative CT method

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            The plant immune system.

            Many plant-associated microbes are pathogens that impair plant growth and reproduction. Plants respond to infection using a two-branched innate immune system. The first branch recognizes and responds to molecules common to many classes of microbes, including non-pathogens. The second responds to pathogen virulence factors, either directly or through their effects on host targets. These plant immune systems, and the pathogen molecules to which they respond, provide extraordinary insights into molecular recognition, cell biology and evolution across biological kingdoms. A detailed understanding of plant immune function will underpin crop improvement for food, fibre and biofuels production.
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              Hormonal modulation of plant immunity.

              Plant hormones have pivotal roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and reproduction. Additionally, they emerged as cellular signal molecules with key functions in the regulation of immune responses to microbial pathogens, insect herbivores, and beneficial microbes. Their signaling pathways are interconnected in a complex network, which provides plants with an enormous regulatory potential to rapidly adapt to their biotic environment and to utilize their limited resources for growth and survival in a cost-efficient manner. Plants activate their immune system to counteract attack by pathogens or herbivorous insects. Intriguingly, successful plant enemies evolved ingenious mechanisms to rewire the plant's hormone signaling circuitry to suppress or evade host immunity. Evidence is emerging that beneficial root-inhabiting microbes also hijack the hormone-regulated immune signaling network to establish a prolonged mutualistic association, highlighting the central role of plant hormones in the regulation of plant growth and survival.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                IJMCFK
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                IJMS
                MDPI AG
                1422-0067
                January 2022
                January 03 2022
                : 23
                : 1
                : 508
                Article
                10.3390/ijms23010508
                35008934
                7c1c02b0-2402-47c3-a277-3de362188536
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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