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      Interferon-γ and celecoxib inhibit lung-tumor growth through modulating M2/M1 macrophage ratio in the tumor microenvironment

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          Tumor-associated macrophages play an important role in tumor growth and progression. These macrophages are heterogeneous with diverse functions, eg, M1 macrophages inhibit tumor growth, whereas M2 macrophages promote tumor growth. In this study, we found that IFNγ and/or celecoxib (cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor) treatment consistently inhibited tumor growth in a mouse lung cancer model. IFNγ alone and celecoxib alone increased the percentage of M1 macrophages but decreased the percentage of M2 macrophages in the tumors, and thus the M2/M1 macrophage ratio was reduced to 1.1 and 1.7 by IFNγ alone and celecoxib alone, respectively, compared to the M2/M1 macrophage ratio of 4.4 in the control group. A combination of IFNγ and celecoxib treatment reduced the M2/M1 macrophage ratio to 0.8. Furthermore, IFNγ and/or celecoxib treatment decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and VEGF, as well as the density of microvessels in the tumors, compared to the control group. This study provides the proof of principle that IFNγ and/or celecoxib treatment may inhibit lung-tumor growth through modulating the M2/M1 macrophage ratio in the tumor microenvironment, suggesting that IFNγ and celecoxib have potential to be further optimized into a new anticancer therapy.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Distinct role of macrophages in different tumor microenvironments.

          Macrophages are prominent in the stromal compartment of virtually all types of malignancy. These highly versatile cells respond to the presence of stimuli in different parts of tumors with the release of a distinct repertoire of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and enzymes that regulate tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and/or metastasis. The distinct microenvironments where tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) act include areas of invasion where TAMs promote cancer cell motility, stromal and perivascular areas where TAMs promote metastasis, and avascular and perinecrotic areas where hypoxic TAMs stimulate angiogenesis. This review will discuss the evidence for differential regulation of TAMs in these microenvironments and provide an overview of current attempts to target or use TAMs for therapeutic purposes.
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            Leukocyte complexity predicts breast cancer survival and functionally regulates response to chemotherapy.

            Immune-regulated pathways influence multiple aspects of cancer development. In this article we demonstrate that both macrophage abundance and T-cell abundance in breast cancer represent prognostic indicators for recurrence-free and overall survival. We provide evidence that response to chemotherapy is in part regulated by these leukocytes; cytotoxic therapies induce mammary epithelial cells to produce monocyte/macrophage recruitment factors, including colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) and interleukin-34, which together enhance CSF1 receptor (CSF1R)-dependent macrophage infiltration. Blockade of macrophage recruitment with CSF1R-signaling antagonists, in combination with paclitaxel, improved survival of mammary tumor-bearing mice by slowing primary tumor development and reducing pulmonary metastasis. These improved aspects of mammary carcinogenesis were accompanied by decreased vessel density and appearance of antitumor immune programs fostering tumor suppression in a CD8+ T-cell-dependent manner. These data provide a rationale for targeting macrophage recruitment/response pathways, notably CSF1R, in combination with cytotoxic therapy, and identification of a breast cancer population likely to benefit from this novel therapeutic approach. These findings reveal that response to chemotherapy is in part regulated by the tumor immune microenvironment and that common cytotoxic drugs induce neoplastic cells to produce monocyte/macrophage recruitment factors, which in turn enhance macrophage infiltration into mammary adenocarcinomas. Blockade of pathways mediating macrophage recruitment, in combination with chemotherapy, significantly decreases primary tumor progression, reduces metastasis, and improves survival by CD8+ T-cell-dependent mechanisms, thus indicating that the immune microenvironment of tumors can be reprogrammed to instead foster antitumor immunity and improve response to cytotoxic therapy.
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              Tumor associated macrophages and neutrophils in tumor progression.

              Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a key component of the tumor microenvironment and orchestrate various aspects of cancer. Diversity and plasticity are hallmarks of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. In response to distinct signals macrophages undergo M1 (classical) or M2 (alternative) activation, which represent extremes of a continuum in a spectrum of activation states. Metabolic adaptation is a key component of macrophage plasticity and polarization, instrumental to their function in homeostasis, immunity and inflammation. Generally, TAMs acquire an M2-like phenotype that plays important roles in many aspects of tumor growth and progression. There is now evidence that also neutrophils can be driven towards distinct phenotypes in response to microenvironmental signals. The identification of mechanisms and molecules associated with macrophage and neutrophil plasticity and polarized activation provides a basis for new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                23 September 2014
                : 8
                : 1527-1538
                [1 ]Department of Thoracic Surgery, West China Hospital, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Western China Collaborative Innovation Center for Early Diagnosis and Multidisciplinary Therapy of Lung Cancer, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Regenerative Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, New Orleans, LA, USA
                [5 ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New Orleans, LA, USA
                [6 ]Tulane Cancer Center, New Orleans, LA, USA
                [7 ]Louisiana Cancer Research Consortium, New Orleans, LA, USA
                [8 ]Tulane Center for Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA
                [9 ]Tulane Center for Aging, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zongbing You, Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, Tulane University, 1430 Tulane Avenue – SL49, New Orleans, LA70112, USA, Tel +1 504 988 0467, Fax +1 504 988 1687, Email zyou@ 123456tulane.edu
                Lunxu Liu, Department of Thoracic Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Alley, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 28 8542 2494, Fax +86 28 8542 2494, Email lunxu_liu@ 123456aliyun.com

                *These two authors contributed equally to this study

                © 2014 Ren et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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