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      Spatio-Temporal Distribution and Fixed-Precision Sampling Plan of Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Florida Blueberry

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          Abstract

          Simple Summary

          Scirtothrips dorsalis, chilli thrips, is an invasive insect species in Florida and an important foliar pest of blueberry. Sound knowledge of insect distribution within the field is needed to formulate accurate sampling methods. Fourteen blueberry fields were systematically sampled for chilli thrips during the summers of 2017 and 2018. Field counts were modeled in various spatial models and determined chilli thrips had temporally stable aggregated distribution. A fixed-precision sampling plan was developed for summer sampling, requiring seven and three sampling units (sampling unit = 10 young blueberry shoots) to estimate a nominal mean density of 20 chilli thrips with a precision of 25% and 40%, respectively. The sampling plan can be used to improve the timing of control measures and assess the effectiveness of these control measures.

          Abstract

          Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood is an invasive and foliar pest of Florida blueberry that reduces plant growth by feeding on new leaf growth. A sampling plan is needed to make informed control decisions for S. dorsalis in blueberry. Fourteen blueberry fields in central Florida were surveyed in 2017 and 2018 after summer pruning to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of S. dorsalis and to develop a fixed-precision sampling plan. A sampling unit of ten blueberry shoots (with four to five leaves each) was collected from one blueberry bush at each point along a 40 × 40 m grid. Field counts of S. dorsalis varied largely ranging from zero to 1122 adults and larvae per sampling unit. Scirtothrips dorsalis had aggregated distribution that was consistent within fields and temporally stable between summers, according to Taylor’s power law (TPL) (aggregation parameter, b = 1.57), probability distributions (56 out of 70 sampling occasions fit the negative binomial distribution), Lloyd’s index ( b > 1 in 94% occasions), and Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs (31% had significant clusters). The newly developed fixed-precision sampling plan required 167, 42, seven, or three sampling units to estimate a nominal mean density of 20 S. dorsalis per sampling unit with a precision of 5%, 10%, 25%, or 40%, respectively. New knowledge on S. dorsalis distribution will aid in evaluating the timing and effectiveness of control measures.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices

           Joe N. Perry (1995)
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            Aggregation, Variance and the Mean

             L. R. TAYLOR (1961)
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              The aggregation pheromones of thrips (Thysanoptera) and their potential for pest management

              Aggregation pheromones have been identified and tested in the field for Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips palmi . These pheromones are produced by adult males and attract both males and females. They are likely to be widespread across the Thripidae and identification is in progress for several other pest species. Aggregation pheromones are used commercially for monitoring and activation. Field trials have shown they can be cost effective for mass trapping when used as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) programme. Use for other approaches, such as lure and kill and mating disruption have not yet been tested. A better understanding of the role of these pheromones in the mating behaviour of thrips is needed and this may suggest further ways of developing their potential for pest management.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Insects
                Insects
                insects
                Insects
                MDPI
                2075-4450
                18 March 2021
                March 2021
                : 12
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Wimauma, FL 33598, USA; justin.Renkema@ 123456canada.ca (J.M.R.); lahiris@ 123456ufl.edu (S.L.)
                [2 ]Crop and Soil Science Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
                [3 ]London Research and Development Centre-Vineland Campus, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Vineland, ON L0R 2E0, Canada
                [4 ]Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; oeliburd@ 123456ufl.edu
                Author notes
                Article
                insects-12-00256
                10.3390/insects12030256
                8002968
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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