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      A Survey of Coping Strategies With Stress in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction and Individuals Without a History of Fixed Myocardial Infarction

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          This study aimed at investigating the coping strategies with stress in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and individuals without a history of fixed MI and cardiovascular disorders.


          This case-control crossover study was conducted from March 2015 to February 2016 on 220 patients with acute MI (MI patients) as case group and 220 patients without any history of MI and cardiovascular diseases as the control group using availability sampling method. To collect the required data, demographic information questionnaire, Holms-Raheh life stress inventory, perceived stress questionnaire, and coping inventory for stressful situations (CISS) were applied.


          On the basis of our findings, 118 patients (53.6%) with MI used emotion-focused coping strategy. Ninety-seven patients (82.2%) with MI who used emotion-focused coping strategy had negative perceived stress. Additionally, 71 patients (60.2%) with MI who had used emotion-focused coping strategy suffered from very high level of stress.


          The most MI patients had very high level of stress while most people in control group had high level of stress. Most MI patients that had very high level of stress cope with it in emotion-focused coping strategy and it proves that people with higher levels of stress are more likely to use inefficient coping strategies.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Depression as a predictor for coronary heart disease. a review and meta-analysis.

          To review and quantify the impact of depression on the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) in initially healthy subjects. Cohort studies on depression and CHD were searched in MEDLINE (1966-2000) and PSYCHINFO (1887-2000), bibliographies, expert consultation, and personal reference files. Cohort studies with clinical depression or depressive mood as the exposure, and myocardial infarction or coronary death as the outcome. Information on study design, sample size and characteristics, assessment of depression, outcome, number of cases, crude and most-adjusted relative risks, and variables used in multivariate adjustments were abstracted. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. The overall relative risk [RR] for the development of CHD in depressed subjects was 1.64 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.29-2.08, p<0.001). A sensitivity analysis showed that clinical depression (RR=2.69, 95% CI=1.63-4.43, p<0.001) was a stronger predictor than depressive mood (RR=1.49, 95% CI=1.16-1.92, p=0.02). It is concluded that depression predicts the development of CHD in initially healthy people. The stronger effect size for clinical depression compared to depressive mood points out that there might be a dose-response relationship between depression and CHD. Implications of the findings for a broader bio-psycho-social framework are discussed.
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            Depression as a risk factor for coronary artery disease: evidence, mechanisms, and treatment.

            The present paper reviews the evidence that depression is a risk factor for the development and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). MEDLINE searches and reviews of bibliographies were used to identify relevant articles. Articles were clustered by theme: depression as a risk factor, biobehavioral mechanisms, and treatment outcome studies. Depression confers a relative risk between 1.5 and 2.0 for the onset of CAD in healthy individuals, whereas depression in patients with existing CAD confers a relative risk between 1.5 and 2.5 for cardiac morbidity and mortality. A number of plausible biobehavioral mechanisms linking depression and CAD have been identified, including treatment adherence, lifestyle factors, traditional risk factors, alterations in autonomic nervous system (ANS) and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, platelet activation, and inflammation. There is substantial evidence for a relationship between depression and adverse clinical outcomes. However, despite the availability of effective therapies for depression, there is a paucity of data to support the efficacy of these interventions to improve clinical outcomes for depressed CAD patients. Randomized clinical trials are needed to further evaluate the value of treating depression in CAD patients to improve survival and reduce morbidity.
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              Psychosocial influences on the development and course of coronary heart disease: current status and implications for research and practice.

              Psychosocial characteristics predict the development and course of coronary heart disease (CHD). In this review, the authors discussed human and animal research on psychophysiological mechanisms influencing coronary artery disease and its progression to CHD. They then reviewed literature on personality and characteristics of the social environment as risk factors for CHD. Hostility confers increased risk, and a group of risk factors involving depression and anxiety may be especially important following myocardial infarction. Social isolation, interpersonal conflict, and job stress confer increased risk. Psychosocial interventions may have beneficial effects on CHD morbidity and mortality, although inconsistent results and a variety of methodological limitations preclude firm conclusions. Finally, they discussed implications for clinical care and the agenda for future research.

                Author and article information

                Cardiol Res
                Cardiol Res
                Elmer Press
                Cardiology Research
                Elmer Press
                February 2018
                11 February 2018
                : 9
                : 1
                : 35-39
                [a ]Yazd Cardiovascular Research Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
                [b ]Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
                [c ]Department of Clinical Psychology, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran
                [d ]Counseling Psychology, Ashkezar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ashkezar, Iran
                Author notes
                [e ]Corresponding Author: Nastaran Ahmadi, Afshar Hospital, Jomhori Blv, Yazd, Iran. Email: ahmadi.psy@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright 2018, Sadr et al.

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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