3 January 2019
Microbiota biofilm, Microbiome, Pathobionts, Giardia, Campylobacter, Post-infectious IBS, Inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, Colo-rectal cancer, Iron, Dysbiosis, Metabolome, Enteropathogen, Mucus
Gut microbiota interacting with an intact mucosal surface are key to the maintenance of homeostasis and health. This review discusses the current state of knowledge of the biofilm mode of growth of these microbiota communities, and how in turn their disruptions may cause disease. Beyond alterations of relative microbial abundance and diversity, the aim of the review is to focus on the disruptions of the microbiota biofilm structure and function, the dispersion of commensal bacteria, and the mechanisms whereby these dispersed commensals may become pathobionts. Recent findings have linked iron acquisition to the expression of virulence factors in gut commensals that have become pathobionts. Causal studies are emerging, and mechanisms common to enteropathogen-induced disruptions, as well as those reported for Inflammatory Bowel Disease and colo-rectal cancer are used as examples to illustrate the great translational potential of such research. These new observations shed new light on our attempts to develop new therapies that are able to protect and restore gut microbiota homeostasis in the many disease conditions that have been linked to microbiota dysbiosis.