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      Biological Profile of Erucin: A New Promising Anticancer Agent from Cruciferous Vegetables

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          Abstract

          Consumption of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk in the development of various types of cancer. This has been attributed to the bioactive hydrolysis products that are derived from these vegetables, namely isothiocyanates. Erucin is one such product derived from rocket salads, which is structurally related to sulforaphane, a well-studied broccoli-derived isothiocyanate. In this review, we present current knowledge on mechanisms of action of erucin in chemoprevention obtained from cell and animal models and relate it to other isothiocyanates. These mechanisms include modulation of phase I, II and III detoxification, regulation of cell growth by induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, induction of ROS-mechanisms and regulation androgen receptor pathways.

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          Most cited references 104

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          Studies on free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors

           Khalid Rahman (2007)
          The interplay between free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors is important in maintaining health, aging and age-related diseases. Free radicals induce oxidative stress, which is balanced by the body’s endogenous antioxidant systems with an input from co-factors, and by the ingestion of exogenous antioxidants. If the generation of free radicals exceeds the protective effects of antioxidants, and some co-factors, this can cause oxidative damage which accumulates during the life cycle, and has been implicated in aging, and age dependent diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and other chronic conditions. The life expectancy of the world population is increasing, and it is estimated that by 2025, 29% of the world population will be aged ≥60 years, and this will lead to an increase in the number of older people acquiring age-related chronic diseases. This will place greater financial burden on health services and high social cost for individuals and society. In order to acheive healthy aging the older people should be encouraged to acquire healthy life styles which should include diets rich in antioxidants. The aim of this review is to highlight the main themes from studies on free radicals, antioxidants and co-factors, and to propose an evidence-based strategy for healthy aging.
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            Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective,

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              Mammalian ABC transporters in health and disease.

              The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a family of large proteins in membranes and are able to transport a variety of compounds through membranes against steep concentration gradients at the cost of ATP hydrolysis. The available outline of the human genome contains 48 ABC genes; 16 of these have a known function and 14 are associated with a defined human disease. Major physiological functions of ABC transporters include the transport of lipids, bile salts, toxic compounds, and peptides for antigen presentation or other purposes. We review the functions of mammalian ABC transporters, emphasizing biochemical mechanisms and genetic defects. Our overview illustrates the importance of ABC transporters in human physiology, toxicology, pharmacology, and disease. We focus on three topics: (a) ABC transporters transporting drugs (xenotoxins) and drug conjugates. (b) Mammalian secretory epithelia using ABC transporters to excrete a large number of substances, sometimes against a steep concentration gradient. Several inborn errors in liver metabolism are due to mutations in one of the genes for these pumps; these are discussed. (c) A rapidly increasing number of ABC transporters are found to play a role in lipid transport. Defects in each of these transporters are involved in human inborn or acquired diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Toxins (Basel)
                toxins
                Toxins
                Molecular Diversity Preservation International
                2072-6651
                April 2010
                05 April 2010
                : 2
                : 4
                : 593-612
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Foundation “Prof. Antonio Imbesi”, Pharmaco-Biological Department, School of Pharmacy, University of Messina/Villaggio Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy; Email: amelchini@ 123456pharma.unime.it
                [2 ]Plant Natural Products and Health Programme, Institute of Food Research/Norwich Research Park, NR4 7UA Norwich, United Kingdom
                Author notes
                [* ] Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; Email: maria.traka@ 123456bbsrc.ac.uk ; Tel.: +44(0)1603 255194.
                Article
                toxins-02-00593
                10.3390/toxins2040593
                3153205
                22069601
                © 2010 by the authors; licensee Molecular Diversity Preservation International, Basel, Switzerland

                This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Molecular medicine

                anticancer agents, isothiocyanates, erucin, rocket salads

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