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      Incremental Peritoneal Dialysis Favourably Compares with Hemodialysis as a Bridge to Renal Transplantation

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          Background. The value of incremental peritoneal dialysis (PD) as a bridge to renal transplantation (Tx) has not been specifically addressed. Methods. All consecutive Stage 5 CKD patients with at least 1 year predialysis followup, starting incremental PD or HD under our care and subsequently receiving their first renal Tx were included in this observational cohort study. Age, gender, BMI, underlying nephropathy, residual renal function (RRF) loss rate before dialysis and RRF at RRT start, comorbidity, RRT schedules and adequacy measures, dialysis-related morbidity, Tx waiting time, RRF at Tx, incidence of delayed graft function (DGF), in-hospital stay for Tx, serum creatinine at discharge and one year later were collected and compared between patients on incremental PD or HD before Tx. Results. Seventeen patients on incremental PD and 24 on HD received their first renal Tx during the study period. Age, underlying nephropathy, RRF loss rate in predialysis, RRF at the start of RRT and comorbidity did not differ significantly. While on dialysis, patients on PD had significantly lower epoetin requirements, serum phosphate, calciumxphosphate product and better RRF preservation. Delayed graft function (DGF) occurred in 12 patients (29%), 1 on incremental PD and 11 on HD. Serum creatinine at discharge and 1 year later was significantly higher in patients who had been on HD. Conclusions. In patients receiving their first renal Tx, previous incremental PD was associated with low morbidity, excellent preservation of RRF, easier attainment of adequacy targets and significantly better immediate and 1-year graft function than those observed in otherwise well-matched patients previously treated with HD.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Association between delayed graft function and allograft and patient survival: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

          Delayed graft function (DGF) is a common complication of renal transplantation. The short-term consequences of DGF are well known, but the long-term relationship between DGF and patient and graft survival is controversial in the published literature. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to precisely estimate these relationships. We performed a literature search for original studies published through March 2007 pertaining to long-term (>6 months) outcomes of DGF. The primary outcome was graft survival. Secondary outcomes were patient survival, acute rejection and kidney function. When compared to patients without DGF, patients with DGF had a 41% increased risk of graft loss (RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.27-1.56) at 3.2 years of follow-up. There was no significant relationship between DGF and patient survival at 5 years (RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.94-1.39). The mean creatinine in the non-DGF group was 1.6 mg/dl. Patients with DGF had a higher mean serum creatinine (0.66 mg/dl, 95% CI 0.57-0.74) compared to patients without DGF at 3.5 years of follow-up. DGF was associated with a 38% relative increase in the risk of acute rejection (RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.29-1.47). The results of this meta-analysis emphasize and quantify the long-term detrimental association between DGF and important graft outcomes like graft survival, acute rejection and renal function. Efforts to prevent and treat DGF should be aggressively investigated in order to improve graft survival given the deficit in the number of kidney donors.
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            Pulmonary hypertension in patients with end-stage renal disease.

            The aims of this study were to evaluate the incidence of unexplained pulmonary hypertension (PH) among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and to suggest possible etiologic factors. The incidence of PH was prospectively estimated by Doppler echocardiography in 58 patients with ESRD receiving long-term hemodialysis via arteriovenous access, and in control groups of 5 patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 12 predialysis patients without a known other cause to suggest the presence of PH. Clinical variables were compared between patients with and without PH receiving hemodialysis. Changes in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) values before and after onset of hemodialysis via arteriovenous access, arteriovenous access compression, and successful kidney transplantation were recorded. PH > 35 mm Hg was found in 39.7% of patients receiving hemodialysis (mean +/- SD, 44 +/- 7 mm Hg; range, 37 to 65 mm Hg), in none of the patients receiving PD, and in 1 of 12 predialysis patients. Patients with PH receiving hemodialysis had a significantly higher cardiac output (6.9 L/min vs 5.5 L/min, p = 0.017). PH developed in four of six patients with normal PAP after onset of hemodialysis therapy via arteriovenous access. One-minute arteriovenous access compression in four patients decreased the mean systolic PAP from 52 +/- 7 to 41 +/- 4 mm Hg (p = 0.024). PH normalized in four of five patients receiving hemodialysis following kidney transplantation. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis according to PAP values revealed significant survival differences (p < 0.024). This study demonstrates a surprisingly high incidence of PH among patients with ESRD receiving long-term hemodialysis with surgical arteriovenous access. Both ESRD and long-term hemodialysis via arteriovenous access may be involved in the pathogenesis of PH by affecting pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac output.
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              Residual renal function improves outcome in incremental haemodialysis despite reduced dialysis dose.

              The importance of residual renal function is well recognized in peritoneal dialysis but its role in haemodialysis (HD) has received much less attention. We studied 650 incident patients in our incremental high-flux HD programme over a 15-year period. Target total Kt/V urea (dialysis plus residual renal) was 1.2 per session and monitored monthly. Renal urea clearance (KRU) was estimated 1-3 monthly. KRU declined during the first 5 years of HD from 3.1 +/- 1.9 at 3 months to 0.9 +/- 1.2 ml/min/1.73 m(2) at 5 years. The percentage of patients with KRU >or= 1 ml/min at these time points was 85% and 31%, respectively. Patients with KRU >or= 1 ml/min had a significantly lower mean creatinine (all time points), ultrafiltration requirement (all time points) and serum potassium (6, 12, 36 and 48 months). Nutritional parameters were also significantly better in respect to nPCR and serum albumin (6, 12, 24 and 36 months). Patients with KRU >or= 1 ml/min had significantly lower erythropoietin requirements and erythropoietin resistance indices (12, 24, 36 and 48 months). Mortality was significantly lower in patients with a KRU >or= 1 at 6, 12 and 24 months after HD initiation, this benefit being maintained after correcting for albumin, age, comorbidities, HDF use and renal diagnosis. Our unique finding was that these benefits occurred despite those with KRU >or= 1 ml/min having a significantly lower dialysis Kt/V at all time points. The associations demonstrated suggest that residual renal function contributes significantly to outcome in HD patients and that efforts to preserve it are warranted. Comparative outcome studies should be controlled for residual renal function.

                Author and article information

                Int J Nephrol
                International Journal of Nephrology
                SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
                15 September 2011
                : 2011
                1Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, Department of Cardiovascular, Renal and Pulmonary Diseases, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, 00189 Rome, Italy
                2Peritoneal Dialysis Regional Referral Centre, Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, Civic Hospital, 00042 Anzio, Italy
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Alejandro Martín-Malo

                Copyright © 2011 Alessandro Domenici et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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