Background. The value of incremental peritoneal dialysis (PD) as a bridge to renal transplantation (Tx) has not been specifically addressed. Methods. All consecutive Stage 5 CKD patients with at least 1 year predialysis followup, starting incremental PD or HD under our care and subsequently receiving their first renal Tx were included in this observational cohort study. Age, gender, BMI, underlying nephropathy, residual renal function (RRF) loss rate before dialysis and RRF at RRT start, comorbidity, RRT schedules and adequacy measures, dialysis-related morbidity, Tx waiting time, RRF at Tx, incidence of delayed graft function (DGF), in-hospital stay for Tx, serum creatinine at discharge and one year later were collected and compared between patients on incremental PD or HD before Tx. Results. Seventeen patients on incremental PD and 24 on HD received their first renal Tx during the study period. Age, underlying nephropathy, RRF loss rate in predialysis, RRF at the start of RRT and comorbidity did not differ significantly. While on dialysis, patients on PD had significantly lower epoetin requirements, serum phosphate, calciumxphosphate product and better RRF preservation. Delayed graft function (DGF) occurred in 12 patients (29%), 1 on incremental PD and 11 on HD. Serum creatinine at discharge and 1 year later was significantly higher in patients who had been on HD. Conclusions. In patients receiving their first renal Tx, previous incremental PD was associated with low morbidity, excellent preservation of RRF, easier attainment of adequacy targets and significantly better immediate and 1-year graft function than those observed in otherwise well-matched patients previously treated with HD.