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      Health-Risk Behaviors and Dietary Patterns Among Jordanian College Students: A Pilot Study


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          Background/Aims: Health promotion and the incorporation of health-protective behaviors in people's lifestyles have a great role in enhancing individuals' overall health and well-being. College students are at increased risk of developing unhealthy dietary and lifestyle behaviors. A cross-sectional pilot study was conducted to assess the health-risk behaviors among undergraduate college students at Jordan University of Science and Technology.

          Methods: The final sample included 136 students, with a mean age of 21.1 ± 2.37 years, mostly females (69%). A self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection about dietary and lifestyle behaviors among college students. The questionnaire consisted of four parts: sociodemographic characteristics, body weight classifications, lifestyle behaviors, and dietary patterns and intake, and eating behaviors.

          Results: Most of the students did not meet the daily recommendations for fruit (76%) and vegetable (82%) intake. Males were significantly consuming fast food more frequently ( p = 0.019), and smoked cigarettes ( p < 0.001) or hookah ( p = 0.015) more frequently than did females. Further, the majority met the recommendations for physical activity (81%), but exceeded recommendations for sedentary behavior. Females were more likely to have normal weight or be underweight (OR = 4.865), to have a fear of weight gain (OR = 3.387), and to have the recommended sleeping hours (OR = 7.685) than were males.

          Conclusion: The results indicate the health-risk behaviors and the gender-related differences among college students.

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          Most cited references78

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          Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer and all-cause mortality—a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies

          Abstract Background: Questions remain about the strength and shape of the dose-response relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and mortality, and the effects of specific types of fruit and vegetables. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify these associations. Methods: PubMed and Embase were searched up to 29 September 2016. Prospective studies of fruit and vegetable intake and cardiovascular disease, total cancer and all-cause mortality were included. Summary relative risks (RRs) were calculated using a random effects model, and the mortality burden globally was estimated; 95 studies (142 publications) were included. Results: For fruits and vegetables combined, the summary RR per 200 g/day was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90–0.94, I2 = 0%, n = 15] for coronary heart disease, 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76–0.92, I2 = 73%, n = 10) for stroke, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90–0.95, I2 = 31%, n = 13) for cardiovascular disease, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95–0.99, I2 = 49%, n = 12) for total cancer and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.87–0.93, I2 = 83%, n = 15) for all-cause mortality. Similar associations were observed for fruits and vegetables separately. Reductions in risk were observed up to 800 g/day for all outcomes except cancer (600 g/day). Inverse associations were observed between the intake of apples and pears, citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and salads and cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, and between the intake of green-yellow vegetables and cruciferous vegetables and total cancer risk. An estimated 5.6 and 7.8 million premature deaths worldwide in 2013 may be attributable to a fruit and vegetable intake below 500 and 800 g/day, respectively, if the observed associations are causal. Conclusions: Fruit and vegetable intakes were associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer and all-cause mortality. These results support public health recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable intake for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and premature mortality.
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            Sitting time and all-cause mortality risk in 222 497 Australian adults.

            Prolonged sitting is considered detrimental to health, but evidence regarding the independent relationship of total sitting time with all-cause mortality is limited. This study aimed to determine the independent relationship of sitting time with all-cause mortality. We linked prospective questionnaire data from 222 497 individuals 45 years or older from the 45 and Up Study to mortality data from the New South Wales Registry of Births, Deaths, and Marriages (Australia) from February 1, 2006, through December 31, 2010. Cox proportional hazards models examined all-cause mortality in relation to sitting time, adjusting for potential confounders that included sex, age, education, urban/rural residence, physical activity, body mass index, smoking status, self-rated health, and disability. During 621 695 person-years of follow-up (mean follow-up, 2.8 years), 5405 deaths were registered. All-cause mortality hazard ratios were 1.02 (95% CI, 0.95-1.09), 1.15 (1.06-1.25), and 1.40 (1.27-1.55) for 4 to less than 8, 8 to less than 11, and 11 or more h/d of sitting, respectively, compared with less than 4 h/d, adjusting for physical activity and other confounders. The population-attributable fraction for sitting was 6.9%. The association between sitting and all-cause mortality appeared consistent across the sexes, age groups, body mass index categories, and physical activity levels and across healthy participants compared with participants with preexisting cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. Prolonged sitting is a risk factor for all-cause mortality, independent of physical activity. Public health programs should focus on reducing sitting time in addition to increasing physical activity levels.
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              NCD Countdown 2030: worldwide trends in non-communicable disease mortality and progress towards Sustainable Development Goal target 3.4

              The third UN High-Level Meeting on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) on Sept 27, 2018, will review national and global progress towards the prevention and control of NCDs, and provide an opportunity to renew, reinforce, and enhance commitments to reduce their burden. NCD Countdown 2030 is an independent collaboration to inform policies that aim to reduce the worldwide burden of NCDs, and to ensure accountability towards this aim. In 2016, an estimated 40·5 million (71%) of the 56·9 million worldwide deaths were from NCDs. Of these, an estimated 1·7 million (4% of NCD deaths) occurred in people younger than 30 years of age, 15·2 million (38%) in people aged between 30 years and 70 years, and 23·6 million (58%) in people aged 70 years and older. An estimated 32·2 million NCD deaths (80%) were due to cancers, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes, and another 8·3 million (20%) were from other NCDs. Women in 164 (88%) and men in 165 (89%) of 186 countries and territories had a higher probability of dying before 70 years of age from an NCD than from communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional conditions combined. Globally, the lowest risks of NCD mortality in 2016 were seen in high-income countries in Asia-Pacific, western Europe, and Australasia, and in Canada. The highest risks of dying from NCDs were observed in low-income and middle-income countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, and, for men, in central Asia and eastern Europe. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target 3.4-a one-third reduction, relative to 2015 levels, in the probability of dying between 30 years and 70 years of age from cancers, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes by 2030-will be achieved in 35 countries (19%) for women, and 30 (16%) for men, if these countries maintain or surpass their 2010-2016 rate of decline in NCD mortality. Most of these are high-income countries with already-low NCD mortality, and countries in central and eastern Europe. An additional 50 (27%) countries for women and 35 (19%) for men are projected to achieve such a reduction in the subsequent decade, and thus, with slight acceleration of decline, could meet the 2030 target. 86 (46%) countries for women and 97 (52%) for men need implementation of policies that substantially increase the rates of decline. Mortality from the four NCDs included in SDG target 3.4 has stagnated or increased since 2010 among women in 15 (8%) countries and men in 24 (13%) countries. NCDs and age groups other than those included in the SDG target 3.4 are responsible for a higher risk of death in low-income and middle-income countries than in high-income countries. Substantial reduction of NCD mortality requires policies that considerably reduce tobacco and alcohol use and blood pressure, and equitable access to efficacious and high-quality preventive and curative care for acute and chronic NCDs.

                Author and article information

                Front Nutr
                Front Nutr
                Front. Nutr.
                Frontiers in Nutrition
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                14 May 2021
                : 8
                [1] 1Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Jordan University of Science and Technology , Irbid, Jordan
                [2] 2Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Allied Health Science, The Hashemite University , Zarqa, Jordan
                [3] 3Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, Faculty of Al-Huson University College, Al-Balqa Applied University , Al-Salt, Jordan
                Author notes

                Edited by: Fatima Baltazar, University of Minho, Portugal

                Reviewed by: Maria Manuel Azevedo, University of Porto, Portugal; Meghit Boumediene Khaled, University of Sidi-Bel-Abbès, Algeria

                *Correspondence: Hana Alkhalidy haalkhalidy@ 123456just.edu.jo

                This article was submitted to Clinical Nutrition, a section of the journal Frontiers in Nutrition

                Copyright © 2021 Alkhalidy, Orabi, Alzboun, Alnaser, Al-Shami and Al-Bayyari.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 86, Pages: 10, Words: 7074
                Funded by: Jordan University of Science and Technology 10.13039/501100004035
                Original Research

                health risk,college students,dietary pattern,smoking,fast-food,behavior


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