Dichloromethane root extract of Rennellia elliptica Korth. showed strong inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro with an IC 50 value of 4.04 µg/mL. A phytochemical study of the dichloromethane root extract has led to the isolation and characterization of a new anthraquinone, 1,2-dimethoxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone ( 1), and ten known anthraquinones: 1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone ( 2), nordamnacanthal ( 3), 2-formyl-3-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone ( 4), damnacanthal ( 5), lucidin- ω-methyl ether ( 6), 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone ( 7), rubiadin ( 8), 3-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone ( 9), rubiadin-1-methyl ether ( 10) and 3-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone ( 11). Structural elucidation of all compounds was accomplished by modern spectroscopic methods, notably 1D and 2D NMR, IR, UV and HREIMS. The new anthraquinone 1, 2-formyl-3-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone ( 4) and 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone ( 7) possess strong antiplasmodial activity, with IC 50 values of 1.10, 0.63 and 0.34 µM, respectively.