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      Using Grounded Theory Methods to Inform the Design of an Authoring Tool

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      Proceedings of the 28th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI 2014) (HCI)

      BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI 2014)

      9 - 12 September 2014

      Grounded Theory Methods, Design, Authoring tools, Autism

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          Abstract

          This paper presents and reflects on how Grounded Theory Methods (GTM) have enabled the construction of a conceptual framework for social story interventions, with the aim of informing the design of an authoring tool to support practitioners in developing social stories. Social stories are broadly used to enhance social interaction in children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC). The paper focuses on methodological issues rather than the outcomes. Five lessons have been drawn out with the intention of providing a guide for those who intend to apply GTM in order to inform the design of computer-based educational tools for ASC.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Development and evaluation of a computer-animated tutor for vocabulary and language learning in children with autism.

          Using our theoretical framework of multimodal processing, we developed and evaluated a computer-animated tutor, Baldi, to teach vocabulary and grammar for children with autism. Baldi was implemented in a Language Wizard/Player, which allows easy creation and presentation of a language lesson involving the association of pictures and spoken words. The lesson plan includes both the identification of pictures and the production of spoken words. In Experiment 1, eight children were given initial assessment tests, tutorials, and reassessment tests 30 days following mastery of the vocabulary items. All of the students learned a significant number of new words and grammar. A second within-subject design with six children followed a multiple baseline design and documented that the program was responsible for the learning and generalization of new words. The research indicates that children with autism are capable of learning new language within an automated program centered around a computer-animated agent, multimedia, and active participation and can transfer and use the language in a natural, untrained environment.
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            Computer-based interventions to improve social and emotional skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

            To review studies involving the use of computer-based interventions (CBI) to improve the social and emotional skills (e.g. emotional recognition) of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The use of computer-based intervention (CBI) in the treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may offer some advantages to traditional one-to-one or group instruction including easier differentiation of instruction, decreased distractions and the incorporation of an individual's relative visual learning strengths. However, the results of past research suggest varying outcomes for CBI with individuals with ASD. This review provides a systematic analysis of studies investigating CBI to improve social and emotional skills (e.g. emotion recognition) of individuals with ASD. Electronic database searches and ancestral searches were used to identify studies that met pre-determined inclusion criteria. The included studies were then summarized in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) social and emotional skills targeted, (c) details of the CBI, (d) results, and (e) certainty of evidence. The results of these studies indicated that CBI's effect on social and emotional skills was mixed, with the majority of studies reporting unacceptable outcomes following intervention. Overall, this review suggests that the use of CBI to improve the social and emotional skills of individuals with ASD is a promising practice. A comparison of CBI plus tutoring and face-to-face social skills training suggests that CBI can be as effective as face-to-face instruction. Practitioners should carefully consider the preferences and existing abilities of individuals with ASD and the customizability of the software when deciding to use CBI and selecting a software program.
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              How do individuals with Asperger syndrome respond to nonliteral language and inappropriate requests in computer-mediated communication?

              Computer-mediated communication in individuals with Asperger syndrome, Tourette syndrome and normal controls was explored with a program called Bubble Dialogue (Gray, Creighton, McMahon, and Cunninghamn (1991)) in which the users type text into speech bubbles. Two scenarios, based on Happé (1994) were adapted to investigate understanding of figure of speech and sarcasm, and a third, developed by ourselves, looked at responses to inappropriate requests (lending money and disclosing home address on a first meeting). Dialogue transcripts were assessed by 62 raters who were blind to the clinical diagnoses. Hierarchical linear modelling revealed that rated understanding of a figure of speech was predicted mainly by verbal ability and executive ability, as well as by clinical diagnosis, whereas handling inappropriate requests was predicted by age, verbal ability, executive ability and diagnosis. Notably, the Tourette comparison group showed better understanding than the Asperger group in interpreting a figure of speech and handling inappropriate requests, and differences between these groups were possibly attributable to individual differences in executive ability. In contrast, understanding sarcasm was predicted by age but not by either verbal ability, executive ability or clinical diagnosis. Evidently, there is a complicated relation between Asperger syndrome, verbal ability and executive abilities with respect to communicative performance.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Conference
                September 2014
                September 2014
                : 177-182
                Affiliations
                University of Edinburgh

                Crichton St 10, Edinburgh, EH8 9AB
                University of Dundee

                Balfour St, DD1 4HD
                Article
                10.14236/ewic/HCI2014.27
                © Aurora Constantin et al. Published by BCS Learning and Development Ltd. Proceedings of the 28th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI 2014), Southport, UK

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Proceedings of the 28th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI 2014)
                HCI
                28
                Southport, UK
                9 - 12 September 2014
                Electronic Workshops in Computing (eWiC)
                BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (HCI 2014)
                Product
                Product Information: 1477-9358BCS Learning & Development
                Self URI (journal page): https://ewic.bcs.org/
                Categories
                Electronic Workshops in Computing

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