ADHS, multimodale Intensivtherapie, kognitive Verhaltenstherapie, Verstärkung, soziale Kompetenz(–Training), ADHD, multimodal intensive therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, reinforcement, social skills (training)
Zusammenfassung. Das Sommertherapiecamp (STC) ist ein multimodaler kognitiv-verhaltenstherapeutischer Intensivbehandlungsansatz für die Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/ Hyperaktivitätsstörung (ADHS). Der Artikel berichtet über Befunde einer Wirksamkeitsstudie für das STC mit Prä-Post-Design und Kontrollgruppenvergleich. Die Eltern von N = 31 Kindern (7 – 11 Jahre) mit einer ADHS-Diagnose füllten vor und nach dem dreiwöchigen STC folgende Symptom-Fragebögen aus: CBCL/4 – 18, DISYPS-II FBB-ADHS und FBB-SSV. N = 13 weitere Kinder der gleichen Grundgesamtheit, die in der selben Zeit unbehandelt blieben oder „treatment as usual“ erhielten, dienten als Kontrollgruppe. Die STC-Gruppe zeigte eine Verbesserung der ADHS-Symptomatik sowie eine Reduktion weiterer Verhaltensauffälligkeiten, während vergleichbare Effekte für die Kontrollgruppe nicht nachweisbar waren. Angesichts kleiner Stichproben sind diese Befunde vorerst vorsichtig zu interpretieren, liefern jedoch erste ermutigende Hinweise auf die Brauchbarkeit des STC.
Abstract. With a prevalence of 5.3 %, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common conditions among children and adolescents. Intensive behavioral therapy interventions such as therapeutic summer programs represent a multimodal treatment approach for ADHD. Several psychosocial interventions (child-based therapy, parent training, and school-centered approaches) are applied to treat disorder-specific symptoms and behavior problems typically associated with impairments in family and school functioning as well as peer interactions. Short- and long-term effects in treating ADHD and related disorders have repeatedly been shown with this type of therapy. The Summer Therapy Camp (STC) for elementary-school-aged children with ADHD distinguishes itself from existing programs in its conceptual approach, treatment method, and implementation. During the 3-week STC, behavior modification (reinforcement without response-cost) and cognitive behavioral therapy are offered to participating children while they engage in school-related and recreational activities in a summer camp setting. The emphasis of the STC is on building behaviors through rewarding appropriate behaviors and proficiencies that foster social competence. Integral parts of the STC are a social skills training that teaches strategies for learning, emotion regulation, and problem-solving plus an accompanying parent training. Monthly booster sessions following the STC are offered to transfer behavior changes achieved during the program to the home and school environments. A total of 40 families from the Rhein-Neckar region in Germany participated in the STCs in 2014 and 2015. Parents of 31 children with ADHD (7 – 11 years of age) filled out various symptom checklists for ADHD, conduct disorder, and related problems (CBCL/4 – 18, DISYPS-II FBB-ADHS, and FBB-SSV) to assess treatment outcomes before and after the STC. An additional group of 13 children from the same sample served as control group. The study reports the results of the efficacy evaluation in a pre–post design including a control group. Pre–post comparisons of the data from the parent questionnaires of the STC group demonstrated statistically significant improvements in overall clinical functioning as well as in key domains of impairment such as attention and social behavior. Greatest improvements were found for disruptive behavior symptoms. Similar effects could not be determined for the control group. The findings provide evidence for the effectiveness of the STC as an intensive therapy program for children aged 7 – 11 with ADHD. Participating children seem to have profited from the STC behavior modification system based primarily on reinforcement and from its content, particularly the social skills training that emphasizes self-regulation and peer interaction competencies. Given the small sample sizes, the results have to be interpreted with caution. However, they provide the first encouraging indications of the value of the STC in the treatment of ADHD.