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Temperature affects acute mayfly responses to elevated salinity: implications for toxicity of road de-icing salts

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      Trimmed Spearman-Karber method for estimating median lethal concentrations in toxicity bioassays

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        Increased salinization of fresh water in the northeastern United States.

        Chloride concentrations are increasing at a rate that threatens the availability of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Increases in roadways and deicer use are now salinizing fresh waters, degrading habitat for aquatic organisms, and impacting large supplies of drinking water for humans throughout the region. We observed chloride concentrations of up to 25% of the concentration of seawater in streams of Maryland, New York, and New Hampshire during winters, and chloride concentrations remaining up to 100 times greater than unimpacted forest streams during summers. Mean annual chloride concentration increased as a function of impervious surface and exceeded tolerance for freshwater life in suburban and urban watersheds. Our analysis shows that if salinity were to continue to increase at its present rate due to changes in impervious surface coverage and current management practices, many surface waters in the northeastern United States would not be potable for human consumption and would become toxic to freshwater life within the next century.
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          Interactions between effects of environmental chemicals and natural stressors: a review.

          Ecotoxicological effect studies often expose test organisms under optimal environmental conditions. However, organisms in their natural settings rarely experience optimal conditions. On the contrary, during most of their lifetime they are forced to cope with sub-optimal conditions and occasionally with severe environmental stress. Interactions between the effects of a natural stressor and a toxicant can sometimes result in greater effects than expected from either of the stress types alone. The aim of the present review is to provide a synthesis of existing knowledge on the interactions between effects of "natural" and chemical (anthropogenic) stressors. More than 150 studies were evaluated covering stressors including heat, cold, desiccation, oxygen depletion, pathogens and immunomodulatory factors combined with a variety of environmental pollutants. This evaluation revealed that synergistic interactions between the effects of various natural stressors and toxicants are not uncommon phenomena. Thus, synergistic interactions were reported in more than 50% of the available studies on these interactions. Antagonistic interactions were also detected, but in fewer cases. Interestingly, about 70% of the tested chemicals were found to compromise the immune system of humans as judged from studies on human cell lines. The challenge for future studies will therefore be to include aspects of combined stressors in effect and risk assessment of chemicals in the environment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Stroud Water Research Center, 970 Spencer Road, Avondale, PA 19311, USA
            Journal
            Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
            Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B
            The Royal Society
            0962-8436
            1471-2970
            January 21 2019
            January 21 2019
            : 374
            : 1764
            : 20180081
            10.1098/rstb.2018.0081
            © 2019

            http://royalsocietypublishing.org/licence

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