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      Druggability analysis and classification of protein tyrosine phosphatase active sites

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          Abstract

          Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) play important roles in the pathogenesis of many diseases. The fact that no PTP inhibitors have reached the market so far has raised many questions about their druggability. In this study, the active sites of 17 PTPs were characterized and assessed for its ability to bind drug-like molecules. Consequently, PTPs were classified according to their druggability scores into four main categories. Only four members showed intermediate to very druggable pocket; interestingly, the rest of them exhibited poor druggability. Particularly focusing on PTP1B, we also demonstrated the influence of several factors on the druggability of PTP active site. For instance, the open conformation showed better druggability than the closed conformation, while the tight-bound water molecules appeared to have minimal effect on the PTP1B druggability. Finally, the allosteric site of PTP1B was found to exhibit superior druggability compared to the catalytic pocket. This analysis can prove useful in the discovery of new PTP inhibitors by assisting researchers in predicting hit rates from high throughput or virtual screening and saving unnecessary cost, time, and efforts via prioritizing PTP targets according to their predicted druggability.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Signaling--2000 and beyond.

           Jon Hunter (2000)
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            Large-Scale Structural Analysis of the Classical Human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatome

            Summary Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play a critical role in regulating cellular functions by selectively dephosphorylating their substrates. Here we present 22 human PTP crystal structures that, together with prior structural knowledge, enable a comprehensive analysis of the classical PTP family. Despite their largely conserved fold, surface properties of PTPs are strikingly diverse. A potential secondary substrate-binding pocket is frequently found in phosphatases, and this has implications for both substrate recognition and development of selective inhibitors. Structural comparison identified four diverse catalytic loop (WPD) conformations and suggested a mechanism for loop closure. Enzymatic assays revealed vast differences in PTP catalytic activity and identified PTPD1, PTPD2, and HDPTP as catalytically inert protein phosphatases. We propose a “head-to-toe” dimerization model for RPTPγ/ζ that is distinct from the “inhibitory wedge” model and that provides a molecular basis for inhibitory regulation. This phosphatome resource gives an expanded insight into intrafamily PTP diversity, catalytic activity, substrate recognition, and autoregulatory self-association.
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              Allosteric inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

              Obesity and type II diabetes are closely linked metabolic syndromes that afflict >100 million people worldwide. Although protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has emerged as a promising target for the treatment of both syndromes, the discovery of pharmaceutically acceptable inhibitors that bind at the active site remains a substantial challenge. Here we describe the discovery of an allosteric site in PTP1B. Crystal structures of PTP1B in complex with allosteric inhibitors reveal a novel site located approximately 20 A from the catalytic site. We show that allosteric inhibitors prevent formation of the active form of the enzyme by blocking mobility of the catalytic loop, thereby exploiting a general mechanism used by tyrosine phosphatases. Notably, these inhibitors exhibit selectivity for PTP1B and enhance insulin signaling in cells. Allosteric inhibition is a promising strategy for targeting PTP1B and constitutes a mechanism that may be applicable to other tyrosine phosphatases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                30 September 2016
                : 10
                : 3197-3209
                Affiliations
                College of Pharmacy, Al Ain University of Science and Technology, Al Ain, UAE
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Noor Atatreh, College of Pharmacy, Al Ain University of Science and Technology, Al Ain, PO Box 64141, UAE, Tel +971 3 702 4888, Fax +971 3 702 4777, Email noor.atatreh@ 123456aau.ac.ae
                Article
                dddt-10-3197
                10.2147/DDDT.S111443
                5053377
                © 2016 Ghattas et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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