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      Validation of a translated version of the modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) cervical myelopathy score in an Arabic speaking population

      1 , 1 , * , 1 , 1
      EDP Sciences
      mJOA, Arabic translation, Validation, Degenerative cervical myelopathy, Psychometric analysis

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          Introduction: Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy (DCM) is a growing disorder. Standardization of its assessment tools is an integral part of its management. The modified Japanese orthopedic association (mJOA) score is one of the most commonly used tools. Currently, there is no available Arabic translated version of any cervical myelopathy functional score. This study aimed to translate, culturally adapt, and measure the psychometric properties of an Arabic translated version of the mJOA. Methods: After translation of the score using the standard forward-backward translation procedure, a validation study including 100 patients was carried out from June 2019 to June 2020. The following psychometric properties were measured: feasibility, reliability, internal consistency, validity, minimal clinically important difference (MCID), ceiling, and floor effect. Results: No problems were encountered during the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the score. The mJOA-AR was found to be a feasible score. It showed high inter-observer reliability ( r = 0.833, P < 0.001), test-retest reliability ( r = 0.987, P < 0.001) and good internal consistency using Cronbach’s alpha (0.777) and Pearson interclass correlation coefficient ( r = 0.717). The score showed good convergent and divergent construct validity correlating it to the Arabic validated version of the neck disability index (NDI). The mJOA-AR had an MCID of 1.506. Both the ceiling and floor effects of the total score and the first and second domains were within the acceptable range, while the third and fourth domains had a high ceiling effect (30% and 39%, respectively). Discussion: Our translated version of the mJOA score was found to be a feasible score with acceptable psychometric properties. This score can be utilized as a good outcome measure tool in Arabic-speaking countries.

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          Cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality of life measures: Literature review and proposed guidelines

          Clinicians and researchers without a suitable health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measure in their own language have two choices: (1) to develop a new measure, or (2) to modify a measure previously validated in another language, known as a cross-cultural adaptation process. We propose a set of standardized guidelines for this process based on previous research in psychology and sociology and on published methodological frameworks. These guidelines include recommendations for obtaining semantic, idiomatic, experiential and conceptual equivalence in translation by using back-translation techniques and committee review, pre-testing techniques and re-examining the weight of scores. We applied these guidelines to 17 cross-cultural adaptation of HRQOL measures identified through a comprehensive literature review. The reporting standards varied across studies but agreement between raters in their ratings of the studies was substantial to almost perfect (weighted kappa = 0.66-0.93) suggesting that the guidelines are easy to apply. Further research is necessary in order to delineate essential versus optional steps in the adaptation process.
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            Interpretation of changes in health-related quality of life: the remarkable universality of half a standard deviation.

            A number of studies have computed the minimally important difference (MID) for health-related quality of life instruments. To determine whether there is consistency in the magnitude of MID estimates from different instruments. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify studies that computed an MID and contained sufficient information to compute an effect size (ES). Thirty-eight studies fulfilled the criteria, resulting in 62 ESs. For all but 6 studies, the MID estimates were close to one half a SD (mean = 0.495, SD = 0.155). There was no consistent relationship with factors such as disease-specific or generic instrument or the number of response options. Negative changes were not associated with larger ESs. Population-based estimation procedures and brief follow-up were associated with smaller ESs, and acute conditions with larger ESs. An explanation for this consistency is that research in psychology has shown that the limit of people's ability to discriminate over a wide range of tasks is approximately 1 part in 7, which is very close to half a SD. In most circumstances, the threshold of discrimination for changes in health-related quality of life for chronic diseases appears to be approximately half a SD.
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              A model of equivalence in the cultural adaptation of HRQoL instruments: the universalist approach.

              The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) literature presents a confused picture of what 'equivalence' in the cross-cultural use of HRQoL questionnaires means and how it can be assessed. Much of this confusion can be attributed to the 'absolutist' approach to the cross-cultural adaptation of HRQoL questionnaires. The purpose of this paper is to provide a model of equivalence from a universalist perspective and to link this to the translation and adaptation of HRQoL questionnaires. The model evolved from reviews of the HRQoL and other literatures, interviews and discussions with researchers working in HRQoL and related areas and practical experience in the adaptation and development of HRQoL instruments. The model incorporates six key types of equivalence. For each type of equivalence the paper provides a definition, proposes various strategies for examining whether and how types of equivalence can be achieved, illustrates the relationships between them and suggests the order in which they should be tested. The principal conclusions are: (1) that a universalist approach to the cross-cultural adaptation of HRQoL instruments requires that six types of equivalence be taken into account; (2) that these are sufficient to describe and explain the nature of the cross-cultural adaptation process; (3) that this approach requires careful qualitative research in target cultures, particularly in the assessment of conceptual equivalence; and (4) that this qualitative work will provide information which will be fundamental in deciding whether to adapt an existing instrument and which instrument to adapt. It should also result in a more sensitive adaptation of existing instruments and provide valuable information for interpreting the results obtained using HRQoL instruments in the target culture.

                Author and article information

                SICOT J
                SICOT J
                EDP Sciences
                14 September 2021
                : 7
                : ( publisher-idID: sicotj/2021/01 )
                : 50
                [1 ] Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Assiut University Hospitals 71515 Assiut Egypt
                Author notes
                Author information
                sicotj210054 10.1051/sicotj/2021043
                © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2021

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 25 May 2021
                : 28 July 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 21, Pages: 5
                Original Article

                mjoa,arabic translation,validation,degenerative cervical myelopathy,psychometric analysis


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