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      High-throughput screening identifies FAU protein as a regulator of mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator channel

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d1036284e279">In cystic fibrosis, deletion of phenylalanine 508 (F508del) in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel causes misfolding and premature degradation. One possible approach to reducing the detrimental health effects of cystic fibrosis could be the identification of proteins whose suppression rescues F508del-CFTR function in bronchial epithelial cells. However, searches for these potential targets have not yet been conducted, particularly in a relevant airway background using a functional readout. To identify proteins associated with F508del-CFTR processing, we used a high-throughput functional assay to screen an siRNA library targeting 6,650 different cellular proteins. We identified 37 proteins whose silencing significantly rescued F508del-CFTR activity, as indicated by enhanced anion transport through the plasma membrane. These proteins included FAU, UBE2I, UBA52, MLLT6, UBA2, CHD4, PLXNA1, and TRIM24, among others. We focused our attention on FAU, a poorly characterized protein with unknown function. FAU knockdown increased the plasma membrane targeting and function of F508del-CFTR, but not of wild-type CFTR. Investigation into the mechanism of action revealed a preferential physical interaction of FAU with mutant CFTR, leading to its degradation. FAU and other proteins identified in our screening may offer a therapeutically relevant panel of drug targets to correct basic defects in F508del-CFTR processing. </p>

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          Most cited references21

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          Molecular Structure of the Human CFTR Ion Channel.

          The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that uniquely functions as an ion channel. Here, we present a 3.9 Å structure of dephosphorylated human CFTR without nucleotides, determined by electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Close resemblance of this human CFTR structure to zebrafish CFTR under identical conditions reinforces its relevance for understanding CFTR function. The human CFTR structure reveals a previously unresolved helix belonging to the R domain docked inside the intracellular vestibule, precluding channel opening. By analyzing the sigmoid time course of CFTR current activation, we propose that PKA phosphorylation of the R domain is enabled by its infrequent spontaneous disengagement, which also explains residual ATPase and gating activity of dephosphorylated CFTR. From comparison with MRP1, a feature distinguishing CFTR from all other ABC transporters is the helix-loop transition in transmembrane helix 8, which likely forms the structural basis for CFTR's channel function.
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            Rescue of ΔF508-CFTR trafficking via a GRASP-dependent unconventional secretion pathway.

            The most prevalent disease-causing mutation of CFTR is the deletion of Phe508 (ΔF508), which leads to defects in conventional Golgi-mediated exocytosis and cell surface expression. We report that ΔF508-CFTR surface expression can be rescued in vitro and in vivo by directing it to an unconventional GRASP-dependent secretion pathway. An integrated molecular and physiological analysis indicates that mechanisms associated with ER stress induce cell surface trafficking of the ER core-glycosylated wild-type and ΔF508-CFTR via the GRASP-dependent pathway. Phosphorylation of a specific site of GRASP and the PDZ-based interaction between GRASP and CFTR are critical for this unconventional surface trafficking. Remarkably, transgenic expression of GRASP in ΔF508-CFTR mice restores CFTR function and rescues mouse survival without apparent toxicity. These findings provide insight into how unconventional protein secretion is activated, and offer a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cystic fibrosis and perhaps diseases stemming from other misfolded proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Structural model of ATP-binding proteins associated with cystic fibrosis, multidrug resistance and bacterial transport.

              The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transport systems now includes over thirty proteins that share extensive sequence similarity and domain organization. This superfamily includes the well characterized periplasmic binding protein-dependent uptake systems of prokaryotes, bacterial exporters, and eukaryotic proteins including the P-glycoprotein associated with multidrug resistance in tumours (MDR), the STE6 gene product that mediates export of yeast a-factor mating pheromone, pfMDR that is implicated in chloroquine resistance of the malarial parasite, and the product of the cystic fibrosis gene (CFTR). Here we present a tertiary structure model of the ATP-binding cassettes characteristic of this class of transport system, based on similarities between the predicted secondary structures of members of this family and the previously determined structure of adenylate kinase. This model has implications for both the molecular basis of transport and cystic fibrosis and provides a framework for further experimentation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Biological Chemistry
                J. Biol. Chem.
                American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB)
                0021-9258
                1083-351X
                January 26 2018
                January 26 2018
                January 26 2018
                November 20 2017
                : 293
                : 4
                : 1203-1217
                Article
                10.1074/jbc.M117.816595
                5787799
                29158263
                7c8643d9-88c1-4e9a-83d3-6231a4cc9078
                © 2017
                History

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