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      The receptor tyrosine kinase Ror2 is involved in non-canonical Wnt5a/JNK signalling pathway

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          Abstract

          Ror2 is an orphan receptor, belonging to the Ror family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Although Ror2 has been shown to play crucial roles in developmental morphogenesis, the precise signalling events that Ror2 mediates remain elusive. Since Ror2 possesses an extracellular cysteine-rich domain (CRD) that resembles the Wnt-binding sites of the Frizzled (Fz) proteins, it is conceivable that Ror2 interacts with members of the Wnt family. Both Ror2-/- and Wnt5a-/- mice exhibit dwarfism, facial abnormalities, short limbs and tails, dysplasia of lungs and genitals, and ventricular septal defects. In vitro binding assay revealed that Wnt5a binds to the CRD of Ror2. Furthermore, Ror2 associates via its CRD with rFz2, a putative receptor for Wnt5a. Interestingly, Wnt5a and Ror2 activate the non-canonical Wnt pathway, as assessed by activation of JNK in cultured cells and inhibition of convergent extension movements in Xenopus. Our findings indicate that Wnt5a and Ror2 interact physically and functionally. Ror2 may thus act as a receptor for Wnt5a to activate non-canonical Wnt signalling.

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          Most cited references29

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          Wnt signaling: a common theme in animal development.

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            Mechanisms of Wnt signaling in development.

            Wnt genes encode a large family of secreted, cysteine-rich proteins that play key roles as intercellular signaling molecules in development. Genetic studies in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, ectopic gene expression in Xenopus, and gene knockouts in the mouse have demonstrated the involvement of Wnts in processes as diverse as segmentation, CNS patterning, and control of asymmetric cell divisions. The transduction of Wnt signals between cells proceeds in a complex series of events including post-translational modification and secretion of Wnts, binding to transmembrane receptors, activation of cytoplasmic effectors, and, finally, transcriptional regulation of target genes. Over the past two years our understanding of Wnt signaling has been substantially improved by the identification of Frizzled proteins as cell surface receptors for Wnts and by the finding that beta-catenin, a component downstream of the receptor, can translocate to the nucleus and function as a transcriptional activator. Here we review recent data that have started to unravel the mechanisms of Wnt signaling.
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              LDL-receptor-related proteins in Wnt signal transduction.

              The Wnt family of secreted signalling molecules are essential in embryo development and tumour formation. The Frizzled (Fz) family of serpentine receptors function as Wnt receptors, but how Fz proteins transduce signalling is not understood. In Drosophila, arrow phenocopies the wingless (DWnt-1) phenotype, and encodes a transmembrane protein that is homologous to two members of the mammalian low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-related protein (LRP) family, LRP5 and LRP6 (refs 12-15). Here we report that LRP6 functions as a co-receptor for Wnt signal transduction. In Xenopus embryos, LRP6 activated Wnt-Fz signalling, and induced Wnt responsive genes, dorsal axis duplication and neural crest formation. An LRP6 mutant lacking the carboxyl intracellular domain blocked signalling by Wnt or Wnt-Fz, but not by Dishevelled or beta-catenin, and inhibited neural crest development. The extracellular domain of LRP6 bound Wnt-1 and associated with Fz in a Wnt-dependent manner. Our results indicate that LRP6 may be a component of the Wnt receptor complex.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Genes to Cells
                Genes Cells
                Wiley
                1356-9597
                1365-2443
                July 2003
                July 2003
                : 8
                : 7
                : 645-654
                Article
                10.1046/j.1365-2443.2003.00662.x
                12839624
                7c8d4da0-806f-4f1e-a92c-aac465594dff
                © 2003

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1


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