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      Wheat Straw-Derived N-, O-, and S-Tri-doped Porous Carbon with Ultrahigh Specific Surface Area for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

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          Abstract

          Recently, lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have been greeted by a huge ovation owing to their very high theoretical specific capacity (1675 mAh·g −1) and theoretical energy density (2600 Wh·kg −1). However, the full commercialization of Li-S batteries is still hindered by dramatic capacity fading resulting from the notorious “shuttle effect” of polysulfides. Herein, we first describe the development of a facile, inexpensive, and high-producing strategy for the fabrication of N-, O-, and S-tri-doped porous carbon (NOSPC) via pyrolysis of natural wheat straw, followed by KOH activation. The as-obtained NOSPC shows characteristic features of a highly porous carbon frame, ultrahigh specific surface area (3101.8 m 2·g −1), large pore volume (1.92 cm 3·g −1), good electrical conductivity, and in situ nitrogen (1.36 at %), oxygen (7.43 at %), and sulfur (0.7 at %) tri-doping. The NOSPC is afterwards selected to fabricate the NOSPC-sulfur (NOSPC/S) composite for the Li-S batteries cathode material. The as-prepared NOSPC/S cathode delivers a large initial discharge capacity (1049.2 mAh·g −1 at 0.2 C), good cycling stability (retains a reversible capacity of 454.7 mAh·g −1 over 500 cycles at 1 C with a low capacity decay of 0.088% per cycle), and superior rate performance (619.2 mAh·g −1 at 2 C). The excellent electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the synergistic effects of structural restriction and multidimensional chemical adsorptions for cooperatively repressing the polysulfides shuttle.

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          Most cited references 51

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          Synthesis of phosphorus-doped graphene and its multifunctional applications for oxygen reduction reaction and lithium ion batteries.

          We develop a simple and economical thermal annealing method for the synthesis of phosphorus-doped graphene, which exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction and enhances the electrochemical performance as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The experimental results suggest the significant role of phosphorus atoms in graphene. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
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            Long-life Li/polysulphide batteries with high sulphur loading enabled by lightweight three-dimensional nitrogen/sulphur-codoped graphene sponge

            Lithium–sulphur batteries with a high theoretical energy density are regarded as promising energy storage devices for electric vehicles and large-scale electricity storage. However, the low active material utilization, low sulphur loading and poor cycling stability restrict their practical applications. Herein, we present an effective strategy to obtain Li/polysulphide batteries with high-energy density and long-cyclic life using three-dimensional nitrogen/sulphur codoped graphene sponge electrodes. The nitrogen/sulphur codoped graphene sponge electrode provides enough space for a high sulphur loading, facilitates fast charge transfer and better immobilization of polysulphide ions. The hetero-doped nitrogen/sulphur sites are demonstrated to show strong binding energy and be capable of anchoring polysulphides based on first-principles calculations. As a result, a high specific capacity of 1,200 mAh g−1 at 0.2C rate, a high-rate capacity of 430 mAh g−1 at 2C rate and excellent cycling stability for 500 cycles with ∼0.078% capacity decay per cycle are achieved.
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              A nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped carbon derived from polyrhodanine@cellulose for advanced lithium-sulfur batteries.

              A sulfur electrode exhibiting strong polysulfide chemisorption using a porous N, S dual-doped carbon is reported. The synergistic functionalization from the N and S heteroatoms dramatically modifies the electron density distribution and leads to much stronger polysulfide binding. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies combined with ab initio calculations reveal strong Li(+) -N and Sn (2-) -S interactions. The sulfur electrodes exhibit an ultralow capacity fading of 0.052% per cycle over 1100 cycles.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Materials (Basel)
                Materials (Basel)
                materials
                Materials
                MDPI
                1996-1944
                11 June 2018
                June 2018
                : 11
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Resource and Environment, Henan University of Engineering, No. 1, Xianghe Road, Zhengzhou 451191, China; chenfeng871588@ 123456163.com (F.C.); malulu1001@ 123456163.com (L.M.); renjiangang2005@ 123456126.com (J.R.); mouzhang1015@ 123456163.com (M.Z.); hngclb@ 123456126.com (B.L.)
                [2 ]School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Lushan South Street 932, Yuelu District, Changsha 410083, China; 17307484092@ 123456163.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: songzhimin1961@ 123456126.com (Z.S.); hncsyjy308@ 123456163.com (X.Z.); Tel.: +86-0371-6250-8218 (Z.S.); +86-0731-8883-6329 (X.Z.)
                Article
                materials-11-00989
                10.3390/ma11060989
                6025088
                29891822
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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