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      Dinoflagellate Evolution: Speculation and Evidence*†

      The Journal of Protozoology

      Wiley

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          Abstract

          Nuclear features of dinoflagellates that were used originally to support the Mesocaryota concept are reviewed. The fibrillar diameter of dinoflagellage chromatin, low level of chromosomal basic proteins, membrane attachment of chromosomes and swirl pattern observed in sectioned chromosomes are features that support a prokaryotic affinity. The presence of repeated and highly complex DNA, a S-phase of DNA synthesis in the cell cycle, presence of basic proteins, and the reinterpretation of extranuclear microtubules as a spindle support the contention that dinoflagellates are eukaryotes. This combination of prokaryotic and eukaryotic features suggests that dionflagellates are a geologically old group and that perhaps they diverged from the higher eukaryotic lineage before evolution of eukaryotic chromatin but after the evolution of repeated DNA. The 2 patterns of carotenoid composition exemplified by the presence of peridinin or fucoxanthin suggest separate origins of dinoflagellate plastids, perhaps by prokaryotic and eukaryotic capture. It is suggested that the species possessing fucoxanthin obtained their plastids by capture of photosynthetic eukaryotes.

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          PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS OF SYMBIOTIC DINOFLAGELLATES (ZOOXANTHELLAE) FROM CORALS AND CLAMS

           S. JEFFREY,  F. Haxo (1968)
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            Chloroplast pigments of the marine dinoflagellateGyrodinium resplendens.

            The photosynthetic marine dinoflagellate,Gyrodinium resplendens, was grown axenically and harvested during logarithmic growth for analysis of its lipid-soluble pigments. Chlorophylla and 8 carotenoids were isolated from the methanol and acetone extract by column and thin-layer chromatography. Chlorophyllc was isolated by partitioning the total extract between saline aqueous acetone and hexane.Absorption spectra taken in hexane, ethanol, methanol and carbon disulfide confirm the presence of beta-carotene, peridinin, dinoxanthin and diadinoxanthin as major carotenoids.Four new minor xanthophylls are also described, one of which, namedpyrrhoxanthin, resembles an alkali-labile keto-epoxide. At least one of the minor xanthophylls occurs as an ester.Diadinoxanthin fromGyrodinium and antheraxanthin fromEuglena gracilis seem to be identical with respect to absorption curves, polarity, number of 5, 6-epoxy groups and lack of allylic hydroxyl groups; however, co-chromatography of stereoisomers after iodine-isomerization showed slight differences.Most of the carotenoids are further characterized here by their partition ratios between hexane and 95% methanol. Several of the carotenoids were tested for the presence of 5, 6-epoxy and allylic hydroxyl groups. Four of the pigments, comprising 91% of the total carotenoids are revealed as 5,6-monoepoxides by their instability toward dilute acid. One carotenoid resembles a diepoxide.
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              Observations on vegetative reproduction and sexual life cycles of two freshwater dinoflagellates,Gymondinium pseudopalustreSchiller andWoloszynskia apiculatasp. nov.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The Journal of Protozoology
                Wiley
                00223921
                February 1976
                February 1976
                April 30 2007
                : 23
                : 1
                : 13-28
                Article
                10.1111/j.1550-7408.1976.tb05241.x
                944775
                © 2007

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