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      Morphology and distribution of scales, dermal ossifications, and other non‐feather integumentary structures in non‐avialan theropod dinosaurs

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          Occurrence of the potent mutagens 2- nitrobenzanthrone and 3-nitrobenzanthrone in fine airborne particles

          Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) are known due to their mutagenic activity. Among them, 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) are considered as two of the most potent mutagens found in atmospheric particles. In the present study 2-NBA, 3-NBA and selected PAHs and Nitro-PAHs were determined in fine particle samples (PM 2.5) collected in a bus station and an outdoor site. The fuel used by buses was a diesel-biodiesel (96:4) blend and light-duty vehicles run with any ethanol-to-gasoline proportion. The concentrations of 2-NBA and 3-NBA were, on average, under 14.8 µg g−1 and 4.39 µg g−1, respectively. In order to access the main sources and formation routes of these compounds, we performed ternary correlations and multivariate statistical analyses. The main sources for the studied compounds in the bus station were diesel/biodiesel exhaust followed by floor resuspension. In the coastal site, vehicular emission, photochemical formation and wood combustion were the main sources for 2-NBA and 3-NBA as well as the other PACs. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) were calculated for both places, which presented low values, showing low cancer risk incidence although the ILCR values for the bus station were around 2.5 times higher than the ILCR from the coastal site.
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            TNT version 1.5, including a full implementation of phylogenetic morphometrics

            Version 1.5 of the computer program TNT completely integrates landmark data into phylogenetic analysis. Landmark data consist of coordinates (in two or three dimensions) for the terminal taxa; TNT reconstructs shapes for the internal nodes such that the difference between ancestor and descendant shapes for all tree branches sums up to a minimum; this sum is used as tree score. Landmark data can be analysed alone or in combination with standard characters; all the applicable commands and options in TNT can be used transparently after reading a landmark data set. The program continues implementing all the types of analyses in former versions, including discrete and continuous characters (which can now be read at any scale, and automatically rescaled by TNT). Using algorithms described in this paper, searches for landmark data can be made tens to hundreds of times faster than it was possible before (from T to 3T times faster, where T is the number of taxa), thus making phylogenetic analysis of landmarks feasible even on standard personal computers.
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              The evolution of dinosaurs.

              The ascendancy of dinosaurs on land near the close of the Triassic now appears to have been as accidental and opportunistic as their demise and replacement by therian mammals at the end of the Cretaceous. The dinosaurian radiation, launched by 1-meter-long bipeds, was slower in tempo and more restricted in adaptive scope than that of therian mammals. A notable exception was the evolution of birds from small-bodied predatory dinosaurs, which involved a dramatic decrease in body size. Recurring phylogenetic trends among dinosaurs include, to the contrary, increase in body size. There is no evidence for co-evolution between predators and prey or between herbivores and flowering plants. As the major land masses drifted apart, dinosaurian biogeography was molded more by regional extinction and intercontinental dispersal than by the breakup sequence of Pangaea.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Biological Reviews
                Biological Reviews
                Wiley
                1464-7931
                1469-185X
                January 06 2022
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Unidad Ejecutora Lillo, CONICET‐Fundación Miguel Lillo 251 Miguel Lillo, San Miguel de Tucumán Tucumán 4000 Argentina
                [2 ]School of Environmental and Rural Science University of New England Armidale NSW 2351 Australia
                [3 ]Vertebrate Palaeontology Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences The University of Hong Kong Pokfulam Hong Kong SAR China
                [4 ]Department of Earth Sciences University College London WC1E 6BT United Kingdom
                [5 ]St. George Dinosaur Discovery Site at Johnson Farm 2180 East Riverside Drive St. George UT U.S.A.
                [6 ]Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Geologie Richard‐Wagner‐Str. 10 Munich 80333 Germany
                [7 ]Field Museum of Natural History 1400 S Lake Shore Drive Chicago IL 60605 U.S.A.
                [8 ]Department of Geology and Geophysics University of Utah Frederick Albert Sutton Building, 115 South 1460 East Salt Lake City UT 84112 U.S.A.
                [9 ]Natural History Museum of Utah 301 Wakara Way Salt Lake City UT 84108 U.S.A.
                [10 ]Department of Biological Sciences University of Alberta Edmonton AB Canada
                [11 ]GeoBioTec, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia Universidade Nova de Lisboa Caparica Portugal
                [12 ]Museu da Lourinhã 95 Rua João Luis de Moura Lourinhã 2530‐158 Portugal
                [13 ]Foundation for Scientific Advancement 7023 Alhambra Dr. Sierra Vista AZ 85650 U.S.A.
                [14 ]Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Instituto de Geociências Cidade Universitária, Rua Carlos Gomes, 250 Campinas SP 13083‐855 Brazil
                Article
                10.1111/brv.12829
                7cbb8ef8-c86d-4d73-8c2a-db72f3a45c20
                © 2022

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1


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