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      Coupling between Grand cycles and Events in Earth’s climate during the past 115 million years

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      Scientific Reports
      Nature Publishing Group UK

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          Abstract

          Geological sediment archives document a rich periodic series of astronomically driven climate, but record also abrupt, severe climatic changes called events, the multi-Myr boundary conditions of which have generally been ascribed to acyclic processes from Earth’s interior dynamics. These events have rarely been considered together within extended time series for potential correlation with long-term (multi-million year, Myr) cycling. Here I show a coupling between events and multi-Myr cycles in a temperature and ice-volume climatic proxy of the geological past 115 Myr. I use Cenozoic through middle Cretaceous climatic variations, as recorded in benthic foraminifera δ 18O, to highlight prominent ~9 and ~36 Myr cyclicities. These cyclicities were previously attributed either to astronomical or tectonic variations. In particular, I point out that most of the well-known events during the past 115 Myr geological interval occur during extremes in the ~9 and ~36 Myr cycling. One exception is the early Cenozoic hyperthermal events including the salient Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (~56 Ma), which do not match extremes in long-period cyclicities, but to inflection point of these cycles. Specific focus on climatic events, as inferred from δ 18O proxy, suggest that some “events”, marked by gradual trends within the ~9 and ~36 Myr cycle extremes, would principally be paced by long-term cycling, while “events”, recorded as abrupt δ 18O changes nearby cycle extremes, would be rather induced by acyclic processes. The connection between cyclic and acyclic processes, as triggers or feedbacks, is very likely. Such link between cycling and events in Earth’s past climate provides insight into celestial dynamics governing perturbations in Earth’s surface systems, but also the potential connection between external and Earth’s interior processes.

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          Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present.

          Since 65 million years ago (Ma), Earth's climate has undergone a significant and complex evolution, the finer details of which are now coming to light through investigations of deep-sea sediment cores. This evolution includes gradual trends of warming and cooling driven by tectonic processes on time scales of 10(5) to 10(7) years, rhythmic or periodic cycles driven by orbital processes with 10(4)- to 10(6)-year cyclicity, and rare rapid aberrant shifts and extreme climate transients with durations of 10(3) to 10(5) years. Here, recent progress in defining the evolution of global climate over the Cenozoic Era is reviewed. We focus primarily on the periodic and anomalous components of variability over the early portion of this era, as constrained by the latest generation of deep-sea isotope records. We also consider how this improved perspective has led to the recognition of previously unforeseen mechanisms for altering climate.
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            A long-term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                slah.boulila@sorbonne-universite.fr
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                23 January 2019
                23 January 2019
                2019
                : 9
                : 327
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2112 9282, GRID grid.4444.0, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Institut des Sciences de la Terre Paris, ISTeP, ; F-75005 Paris, France
                [2 ]ASD/IMCCE, CNRS-UMR8028, Observatoire de Paris, PSL University, Sorbonne Université, 77 Avenue Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris, France
                Article
                36509
                10.1038/s41598-018-36509-7
                6344641
                30674928
                7cbbc3d5-7abf-4720-af74-7ec8faad13e0
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 23 July 2018
                : 20 November 2018
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